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Neuropsychologists can determine which everyday tasks patients with brain injuries may have problems performing arteria auditiva adalat 30 mg mastercard. Neuropsychologists then recommend what task may be strengthened through rehabilitation or through compensation of other intact skills arrhythmia recognition test order 20 mg adalat fast delivery. For example blood pressure 8050 discount adalat 30mg visa, if a right hemisphere patient has trouble finding his or her way around a hospital and often gets lost arrhythmia quiz ecg buy 30 mg adalat visa, the patient may learn specific right/left directions and also compensate by learning to ask bystanders for directions. The patient may also rely on a notepad that always reminds him or her what the destination is. Thus, neuropsychologists play an important role in treating and rehabilitating patients with brain injuries. How do the two major approaches (process and battery) to interpreting neuropsychological data differ The principal difference is that the battery approach is a standardized approach to assessment, Answers to Critical Thinking Questions 541 whereas the process approach is a clinical analysis of a patient. The former is akin to having a patient undergo a series of tests and standardized questions to understand his or her abilities and deficits. The standard battery approach has evolved through empirical analysis and the extensive testing history of psychological testing. Although proponents of the process approach would disagree with this conclusion, research supporting the process approach is not as robust as the empirical foundation of the standard battery approach. As with many issues that are so polarized, most neuropsychologists borrow certain aspects from each approach in their own approach to neuropsychological assessment. The likelihood that these connections regrow spontaneously was thought to be quite small. Although Christopher Reeve never walked again, through intensive rehabilitation aimed at keeping his muscles toned and moving his limbs as he normally would in walking or cycling, he did recover some sensation even after 5 years. However, it is now known that some function can return long after what was previously believed. The current outlook is much more promising for people with paralysis caused by spinal cord injury. Is it possible for a drug to be effective if it does not activate a naturally occurring brain chemical receptor The human brain is affected not only by internally produced chemical messengers, but also by externally originating chemicals that find their way to the synapse. The discovery that the brain has receptors for endogenous opiates, such as endorphins, which produce similar behavioral responses as external opiates, provides the fodder for this question. Why do substances such as caffeine, cocaine, nicotine, and alcohol affect the brain The nervous system has specific receptor sites that bind drugs such as nicotine and opiate compounds. Others may work because they are a close enough mimic, or act as a blocking agent. In general, drugs at the synapse either increase or decrease the likelihood of neuronal transmission. Therefore, drugs can exert their actions in various ways, but it appears that brain receptors must react to them even if they are not perfect mimics. Interestingly, because myelin is an issue, research in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury may help to inform each other. One of the main questions pertaining to neurogenesis is, "What causes neurons to grow and die Various "mapping systems" of the brain are discussed in the chapters that deal with brain anatomy. Mapping systems generally have focused on major structures of the brain as they pertain to function, or to various "architectural" layers of the brain and cortex. From these the correspondence of various structures with their functions has been demonstrated.

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So an animal should store high-level patterns and only particular ones that can improve future behaviors blood pressure 00 adalat 30mg otc. For example prehypertension yahoo order adalat 30mg visa, a nutcracker jay living at high altitude caches nuts at numerous sites in autumn and descends to blood pressure yang normal cheap adalat 20 mg with visa a valley for winter heart attack 720p kickass discount adalat 20mg fast delivery. Returning in spring, it recalls myriad cache locations to sustain itself until the summer brings fresh groceries. For humans, what matters most is our ability to rapidly recall a face, along with any historical significance that we can attach to the face we are facing. Yet we must not store every face encountered on a stroll through the park-only ones likely to prove significant. So a potentially important face needs to be tagged-cognitively and affectively-and then filed. Upon reencounter, the original image is retrieved and held in "working memory" for comparison to the current image. The main cortical face area connects with the amygdala, which "stamps" the image from its catalog of innate emotional expressions. To further annotate the image, the striatal system for reward prediction connects to the face area via a long loop and to the amygdala (Middleton & Strick, 1996). Then, they all connect to sites for working memory and behavioral choice in prefrontal cortex. These organs for pattern recognition, storage, evaluation, and behavioral choice interconnect strongly; therefore, by locating near each other, wire is reduced. Their location anteriorly in temporal and frontal lobes is no mystery: the posterior regions are already occupied by areas concerned with pattern assembly. Thus, in mammals where higher degrees of sociality require the brain to enlarge, the expansion occurs disproportionately in anterior regions for cognition and emotional expression (Dunbar & Shultz, 2007). Thus, although human and macaque collect similar amounts of sensory information. This occurs especially in forward regions that include amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Correcting errors Evaluating behavior: Two kinds of prediction error the parts of the motor system that directly generate and distribute final output patterns (behavior) require only a small fraction of total brain volume. Each motor act is also a beginning: it is a provisional answer to some predicted need. Since needs recur, output patterns might be improved if their effectiveness could How Bigger Brains Are Organized 87 be evaluated. Therefore, the brain invests heavily in several systems for evaluation and error correction. One system asks, "How precisely did the actual output pattern match the intended pattern This serves motor learning-what is gained from practicing the piano or the golf swing. Mindful repetition improves speed and accuracy-and also efficiency-since a motion that begins awkwardly eventually gains grace and saves energy (Huang et al. This system also serves cognitive and affective processes: it compares intended cognitive and emotional patterns to what actually occur and then feeds back to improve subsequent performance. Another system asks, "Was the act, however well performed, worth the energy and the risk The neural mechanism rewards a better outcome by releasing a pulse of dopamine at key brain sites and punishes a poorer outcome by reducing dopamine and enhancing other chemical signals. This is reward-prediction learning, and one can easily imagine its myriad ramifications. Reward-prediction learning evaluates every choice and thus charts the course of our lives: cereal or toast; law or medicine; choice of mate, friends, and retirement fund (chapter 14). Intention learning and reward-prediction learning employ different brain structures, and both are large (Doya, 2000). The organ for intention learning is the cerebellum, and the organ for reward-prediction learning is the striatum (figure 4. Neither structure directly modulates the final output: they do not send wires to the low-level pattern generators. Rather, they return error signals to particular high-level organizers of behavior.

Students who only struggle with reading rate and prosody (how fast they read and if they read with expression) are those who truly have a fluency disability and will benefit most from fluency interventions blood pressure 6240 discount adalat 30 mg mastercard. Typically these students will also struggle with any rapid automatic naming tasks such as identifying colors arteria umbilical percentil 95 discount 20 mg adalat with amex, letter names blood pressure line chart purchase adalat 30mg free shipping, numbers heart attack 70 blockage discount adalat 20mg on-line, names of familiar items and so on. Disfluent readers are exposed to significantly fewer words than those who are strong readers. If these skills are not remedied early, the cumulative lack of exposure to words becomes extremely challenging to reconcile. Students who are struggling to read are less motivated to read, reducing exposure to vocabulary, a critical element of reading comprehension. As a student progresses through school, a breakdown in fluency can make it extraordinarily difficult to keep up with the intensity and high volume of reading required for secondary and post-secondary education. If a student struggles with accuracy, it is important to assess the underlying basic reading skills. Intervention and Progress Monitoring the earlier reading fluency intervention is provided, the more likely it is that students will respond. Joe Torgesen and his colleagues have found that reading fluency is the hardest area to improve when intervention has not occurred early enough. This is not to say that fluency cannot be improved, rather that early identification and intervention are most likely to result in complete remediation. It is important to note that when intervening for reading fluency, an overemphasis on rate alone can have a detrimental effect on overall reading ability. Direct, explicit instruction is required for students to improve all three components of fluency: accuracy, rate and prosody. Reading rate develops as a function of efficient decoding skills, opportunities for successful practice, and learning to read with expression (Rasinski, 2004, B). A good fluency intervention program includes frequent opportunities to practice reading. Teachers should model reading fluency, students should work in pairs, and chunking or phrasing should be explicitly taught. The progress monitoring will be sensitive enough to show growth and gain as a result of instruction, and the benchmarking will help keep the ultimate goal in mind. Reading comprehension is a complicated set of processes that has been studied relatively little compared to the other areas of reading. In spite of the lack of research on reading comprehension only disabilities, there is consensus that all students with any type of reading disability benefit from direct, systematic, explicit instruction in reading comprehension skills and strategies. If this is the case, it is critical to instruct on the basic skill deficits as well as the comprehension deficits. Although it tends to be more unusual for a student to have a comprehension only deficit, this can occur. A reading comprehension deficit assumes that basic reading skills are intact and that the student can read fluently without errors. Students with a reading comprehension disability are typically not identified until the shift occurs from learning to read, to reading to learn. First, and foremost, children with this deficit may have more basic struggles in the area of oral language including new vocabulary development. In Overcoming Dyslexia, Sally Shaywitz determined that a child learns about seven new words per day, which amounts to three thousand words per year (Shaywitz,2003). If students struggle with acquiring oral language, this will certainly impair their ability to comprehend written language. Typically students who struggle in this area use smaller words and need significantly more exposure to new words. Their ability to understand what makes a complete sentence and what order to put words in may be impaired. For students with breakdowns in language comprehension, phonological processing is often intact. Nevertheless, a student must be able to understand oral language before they can comprehend written language. If there are gaps in listening comprehension, it is likely there will be gaps in reading comprehension as well.

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Ironically 01 heart attackm4a demi 20mg adalat free shipping, many such patients often can verbalize the appropriate actions they "should take blood pressure medication effects on kidneys cheap adalat 30 mg line," but cannot follow through with those actions blood pressure of 100/70 adalat 20 mg free shipping. For example blood pressure monitor 20mg adalat visa, individuals with a spatial problem may be able to verbalize the steps in preparing a cup of coffee, but nevertheless continue to let coffee overflow when pouring a cup. The brain trauma has impaired their ability to monitor their own behaviors and to understand the consequences of their own actions. Because the tumor was the size of a baseball it had already displaced and invaded healthy brain tissue. After he or she lifts the ovalshaped piece of skull the dura mater is exposed, a thick membrane that protects the brain and spinal cord. The neurosurgeon had to navigate carefully, dividing the tumor from the normal brain, cauterizing severed blood vessels along the way. For example, the person may be hungry, and food may be sitting there ready to be consumed, but the person fails to bring the food to his or her mouth. A lab autopsy verified the initial diagnosis: a malignant glioma, a fast-growing and dangerous tumor (discussed later). Her long-term prognosis was poor, however, since research clearly demonstrated that similar patients only live 6 to 12 months, even after a successful operation. No matter how careful the surgeon cuts out the malignant tumor, the few stray cancer cells that are inevitably left behind will begin to grow again. The term tumor refers to a morbid enlargement or new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. This growth is, however, often arranged in disorganized ways, does not serve any functional purpose, and often grows at the expense of surrounding intact tissue. Brain tumors make up approximately 5% of all cancers and appear in approximately 2% of all autopsies. Because cancer is the second most frequent cause of death, the actual number of victims with brain tumors is actually quite high. Brain tumors can occur at any age, but are most common in early and middle adulthood (Golden, Zillmer, & Spiers, 1992). Infiltrative tumors-take over (or infiltrate) neighboring areas of the brain and destroy its tissue 2. Noninfiltrative tumors-are encapsulated and differentiated (easily distinguished from brain tissue), but cause dysfunction by compressing surrounding brain tissue Tumors can be further classified according to two additional descriptors: 1. Malignant-indicates that the properties of the tumor cells invade other tissue and are likely to regrow or spread 2. Benign-describes cell growth that is usually surrounded by a fibrous capsule, is typically noninfiltrative (noninvasive), and will not spread the primary feature of malignant tumors is that they are much more likely to reappear after surgical intervention. Because they are infiltrative, it is difficult to completely remove malignant tumors surgically. Malignant tumors may also "travel" to other organs in the body through the bloodstream. Metastatic brain tumors typically originate from primary sites other than the brain, most frequently the lung or the breast. This is because the skull completely encloses the brain, and any mass-producing lesion displaces healthy brain tissue. You may already realize that nerve cells are not likely to cause brain tumors, because neurons do not grow or heal spontaneously. Neuromas are tumors or new growths that are largely made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. One method of evaluating the malignant features of a brain tumor is to grade them from slow-growing neoplasms to rapidly growing tumors. The grade of a tumor is determined by its malignancy, the tendency of a tumor to grow at a fast rate, causing severe destruction of brain tissue and eventually death. Grading is from 1 to 4, with a Grade 1 tumor representing a slow-growing tumor accompanied by few neuropsychological deficits. Grades 2 and 3 represent intermediate rates of growth and neuropsychological dysfunction. Neurological and neuropsychological dysfunction results from the invasion and destruction of brain tissue by the tumor.