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A social assessment looks at social structures asthma definition zoology discount albuterol 100mcg with mastercard, processes asthma later in life albuterol 100mcg without prescription, and changes within a group or community asthma breath sounds generic albuterol 100mcg online. A social assessment is the main instrument used to asthma definition queue albuterol 100mcg on-line ensure that social impacts of development projects, programs, and policy are taken into account. It is used to understand key social issues and risks and to determine the social impacts of an intervention on different stakeholders. In particular, social assessments are intended to determine whether a project is likely to cause adverse social impacts (such as displacing residents to make way for a power plant). Strategies can be put into place to mitigate adverse impacts if they are known and acknowledged; these mitigation strategies can then be monitored and assessed as part of the evaluation. Are the objectives of the project consistent with their needs, interests, and capacities What are the social risks Considering the Evaluation Approach Social assessment: Assessment that looks at social structures, processes, and changes within a group or community 189 (lack of commitment or capacity and incompatibility with existing conditions) that may affect the success of the project or program Environmental and Social Assessment Increasingly, development organizations are recognizing the need for programs and projects to address environmental and social issues and to evaluate the attainment of environmental and social objectives. Most development organizations adhere to a set of core environment and social standards and identify potential environmental and social impacts as part of a program or project approval process. If the project or program is approved, these potential impacts are monitored during implementation and assessed at program or project completion. Development organizations now recognize the role local people must play in designing, implementing, and monitoring interventions that have implications for the environment and natural resources. Local people and other stakeholders are partners in conservation and natural resource management. Environmental and social evaluation may be the sole purpose of an evaluation or it may be one component of the evaluation. Environmental and 190 the Road to Results: Designing and Conducting Effective Development Evaluations Box 5. The project focused on real estate registration, the development of land markets, and the provision of credit and information to rural women and men, especially those with low incomes. The purpose of the social assessment was to ensure that the proposed intervention was based on stakeholder ownership (commitment) and that the anticipated benefits were socially acceptable. The information gained from the assessment helped program managers design a participatory monitoring and evaluation process. There was limited research about the social organizations and lack of analysis of the impacts of rural migration. Land distribution had reduced poverty, curtailed the influence of former farm managers, and helped empower the rural population. The assessment also looked at impacts, in the form of increased productivity, increased income, reduced poverty, and participant satisfaction. Considering the Evaluation Approach 191 social assessments should be conducted not only on projects with obvious environmental effects (pulp and paper mills, oil pipelines) but also on interventions such as the building of a new school or the funding of a credit line. The principles are intended to serve as a common baseline and framework for the implementation of individual, internal, environmental, and social procedures and standards for development projects. The standard, first released in 1999, is an internal management process and tool designed to provide management with reliable and verifiable information on an ongoing basis. Its guidelines are intended for countries, organizations, and individuals concerned with sustainable development at the national or local levels, as well as international organizations concerned with supporting such development. Participatory Evaluation Participatory evaluation takes the notion of stakeholder involvement to a new level. It involves sharing the responsibilities for evaluation planning, implementing, and reporting by involving stakeholders in defining the evaluation questions, collecting and analyzing the data, and drafting and reviewing the report. They are also action-oriented and build stakeholder capacity and facilitate collaboration and shared decision making for increased utilization of evaluation results.

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The Issuer filed a seventh amended application for an order under Section 6(c) of the 1940 Act for exemptions from various provisions of the 1940 Act and rules thereunder (File No. On December 10, 2019, the Commission issued an order (``Exemptive Order') under the 1940 Act granting the exemptions requested in the Application (Investment Company Act Release No. Investments made by the Funds will comply with the conditions set forth in the Application and the Exemptive Order. The description of the operation of the Funds herein is based, in part, on the Registration Statement and the Application. The Fund will normally invest at least 80% of its net assets in the common stocks of large and medium-sized bluechip growth companies that are listed in the United States. In the event (a) the Adviser becomes registered as a broker-dealer or newly affiliated with a broker-dealer, or (b) any new adviser is a registered broker-dealer or becomes affiliated with a broker-dealer, it will implement and maintain a fire wall with respect to its relevant personnel or broker-dealer affiliate regarding access to information concerning the composition and/or changes to the portfolio, and will be subject to procedures designed to prevent the use and dissemination of material non-public information regarding such portfolio. Description of the Funds According to the Application, for each Fund, the Adviser will identify its Proxy Portfolio, which could be a broad-based securities index. The Proxy Portfolio will be determined such that at least 80% of its total assets will overlap with the portfolio weightings of a Fund. This Rule requires investment advisers to adopt a code of ethics that reflects the fiduciary nature of the relationship to clients as well as compliance with other applicable securities laws. The Fund will normally invest at least 80% of its net assets in the common stocks of a diversified group of growth companies. While it may invest in companies of any market capitalization, the Fund generally seeks investments in stocks of large-capitalization companies with one or more of the following characteristics: Strong cash flow and an above-average rate of earnings growth; the ability to sustain earnings momentum during economic downturns; and occupation of a lucrative niche in the economy and the ability to expand even during times of slow economic growth. The Fund will normally invest at least 80% of its net assets in common stocks listed in the United States, with an emphasis on large-capitalization stocks that have a strong track record of paying dividends or that are believed to be undervalued. Other Characteristics of the Funds With respect to the Funds, Shares will generally be issued and redeemed primarily on an in-kind basis, but may include cash under certain circumstances as described in the Application. The Proxy Portfolio will not include any asset that is ineligible to be in the Actual Portfolio of the applicable Fund. Investment Restrictions the Shares of each Fund will conform to the initial and continued listing criteria under proposed Rule 8. The Issuer will sell and redeem Creation Units of each Fund only on a Business Day. Shares will be purchased and redeemed in Creation Units and generally on an in-kind basis. If there is a difference between the net asset value attributable to a Creation Unit and the aggregate market value of the Creation Basket exchanged for the Creation Unit, the party conveying instruments with the lower value will also pay to the other an amount in cash equal to that difference (the ``Cash Amount'). The policies and procedures will set forth detailed parameters for the construction and acceptance of baskets that are in the best interests of a Fund, including the process for any revisions to or deviations from, those parameters. A Fund that normally issues and redeems Creation Units in kind may require purchases and redemptions to be made entirely or in part on a cash basis. A Fund may also determine, upon receiving a purchase or redemption order from an Authorized Participant (as defined below), to have the purchase or 22 the Adviser represents that, to the extent the Issuer effects the creation or redemption of Shares in cash, such transactions will be effected in the same manner for all ``Authorized Participants' (as defined below). The published Creation Basket will apply until a new Creation Basket is announced on the following Business Day, and there will be no intra-day changes to the Creation Basket except to correct errors in the published Creation Basket. The Proxy Portfolio will be published each Business Day regardless of whether a Fund decides to issue or redeem Creation Units entirely or in part on a cash basis. All orders to purchase Creation Units must be placed with the Distributor by or through an Authorized Participant, which is a member or participant of a clearing agency registered with the Commission, which has a written agreement with a Fund or one of its service providers that allows the Authorized Participant to place orders for the purchase and redemption of Creation Units. Validly submitted orders to purchase or redeem Creation Units on each Business Day will be accepted until the end of the Core Trading Session (the ``Order Cut-Off Time'), generally 4:00 p.

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In untangling the importance of different indirect drivers asthma 504 forms for school buy 100mcg albuterol with amex, it is possible to asthmatic bronchitis symptoms buy generic albuterol 100mcg line asthma definition unrequited buy albuterol 100mcg mastercard identify a number of emergent characteristics of the way in which indirect drivers of land degradation and restoration typically operate on the ground (and see Table 3 asthma quality of life buy cheap albuterol 100mcg on line. Changing opportunities created by markets and technological change Increased commercialization and supply chain development Improved access to markets through infrastructure Changes in market prices to inputs and outputs Off-farm wages and employment opportunities Emergence of markets for sustainable products or for ecosystem services Capital investments Changes in national or macro-economic and trade conditions New technologies for intensification of resource use Outside policy intervention Loss of adaptive capacity and increased vulnerability Changes in social organization, in resource access and in attitudes Changes in institutions governing access to resources. Indirect drivers commonly combine to result in complex reinforcing and dampening effects that in turn produce the enabling and disenabling conditions that shape direct drivers of degradation and restoration (Geist & Lambin, 2002, 2004) (Box 3. In a landmark review of the underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation, Geist et al. The same authors came to similar conclusions when assessing the drivers of dryland degradation (Geist & Lambin, 2004). For example, corruption is often an important institutional driver of land degradation, as the prospects of the money that can be gained by political and administrative officials from extractive activities through corruption can encourage them to overlook or even support these activities (Cerutti et al. But another study on South America showed that improvements in general indicators of governance, including corruption, can promote deforestation, likely by providing an environment more conducive to business investments (Ceddia et al. Natural environmental variability interacts with underlying human causes of land degradation and restoration in important ways. Sometimes variability in natural conditions can override the influence of socioeconomic variables. A frequently encountered situation of dryland degradation can be seen in the creation of water-related infrastructure resulting in the expansion of irrigated croplands and pastures. Underlying this expansion is a set of political, economic and technological factors that, in developing countries, are often underpinned by national policies aimed at consolidating territorial control over remote, marginal areas and attaining self-sufficiency in food and clothing (Geist & Lambin, 2004). For example, in Turkmenistan agriculture is almost entirely dependent on irrigation, initially established in the Soviet era and driven, in particular, by a desire to rapidly expand the production of cotton. It is possible to distinguish three modes of underlying causation of land degradation: (1) single-factor causation (one individual underlying factor driving one or more direct drivers); (2) concomitant occurrence (independent, separate operation of factors); and (3) synergistic causation (several interlinked factors acting together) (Geist & Lambin, 2004). In their meta-analyses of the drivers of deforestation and dryland degradation Geist and Lambin (2002, 2004) identified extremely few cases where it is possible to isolate a dominating influence of one indirect driver that is responsible for determining human activities that result in land degradation, concluding instead that the most common type of causation is due to synergistic interaction between multiple drivers. In many situations indirect drivers operating at multiple spatial scales, and in different geographies, combine to shape the activities of a particular land-use sector and its implications for land degradation and restoration outcomes. A superficial analysis identifies the strong demand for soy bean products, including animal feed (mostly pigs) in China as being the dominant indirect driver. However, interacting with this demand are the political influences of the Chinese government in pursuing foreign investments and the Brazilian government in developing an export market. Similarly a number of studies have demonstrated the key role that changes in precipitation has had in driving land degradation in Africa, including in both the Sahel (Ayoub, 1999) (see also Chapter 4, Section 4. Understanding the importance of these natural factors is critically important to avoid misleading interpretations about the significance of demographic, economic and political factors. That said, it is also important to recognize that anthropogenic factors can play a dominant role in exacerbating the impact of otherwise natural drivers. One example that is particularly prominent in many parts of the tropics is landslides. Landslides are commonplace in many mountainous regions but are much more likely to occur in more deforested and human-modified areas (Guns & Vanacker, 2013). This context-specificity of effects makes it challenging to draw general predictions on the sustainability impacts of specific indirect drivers, especially given the constantly shifting backdrop of phenomena that shape how land and natural resources are used, undermining the extent to which studies can be compared across regions and over time. Such types of generalization can be considered as a "middle-range" or "typological" theory (George & Bennett, 2005; Meyfroidt, 2016). One example of this can be seen in the context of agricultural intensification, driven by market growth and technological developments (see Section 3.

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By August 31 asthma treatment yahoo albuterol 100mcg on-line, 2018 asthma definition 3 dimensional buy cheap albuterol 100 mcg on-line, the 2018 Index is expected to asthmatic bronchitis 40 albuterol 100 mcg amex asthma nos 100mcg albuterol mastercard consist entirely of cash carried in this manner. The 2018 Index is a market value weighted index and is rebalanced after the close on the last business day of each month. The Exchange submitted this proposed rule change because the 2018 Index for the 2018 Fund does not meet all of the ``generic' listing requirements of Commentary. The 2018 Index meets all such requirements except for those set forth in Commentary. The 2018 Fund may at times invest up to 20% of its assets in cash and cash equivalents (including money market funds affiliated with the Investment Adviser), as well as in municipal bonds not included in the 2018 Index, but which the Investment Adviser believes will help the 2018 Fund track the 2018 Index. For example, the 2018 Fund may invest in municipal bonds not included in the 2018 Index in order to reflect prospective changes in the 2018 Index (such as 2018 Index reconstitutions, additions, and deletions). The 2018 Fund will generally hold municipal bond securities issued by state and local municipalities whose interest payments are exempt from U. In addition, the 2018 Fund may invest any cash assets in one or more affiliated municipal money market funds. On or about August 31, 2018, the 2018 Fund will wind up and terminate, and its net assets will be distributed to then-current shareholders. The 2019 Fund will generally hold municipal bond securities issued by state and local municipalities whose interest payments are exempt from U. In addition, the 2019 Fund may invest any cash assets in one or more affiliated municipal money market funds. On or about August 31, 2019, the 2019 Fund will wind up and terminate, and its net assets will be distributed to then-current shareholders. Additional information regarding the Trust, the Funds, and the Shares, including investment strategies, risks, creation and redemption procedures, fees, portfolio holdings disclosure policies, distributions, and taxes, among other things, is included in the Notice and Registration Statements, as applicable. To remain in the 2019 Index, bonds must maintain a minimum par amount greater than or equal to $2 million as of each rebalancing date. By August 31, 2019, the 2019 Index is expected to consist entirely of cash carried in this manner. The 2019 Index is a market value weighted index and is rebalanced after the close on the last business day of each month. The Exchange submitted this proposed rule change because the 2019 Index for the 2019 Fund does not meet all of the ``generic' listing requirements of Commentary. The 2019 Index meets all such requirements except for those set forth in Commentary. The Fund may at times invest up to 20% of its assets in cash and cash equivalents (including money market funds affiliated with the Investment Adviser), as well as in municipal bonds not included in the 2019 Index, but which the Investment Adviser believes will help the 2019 Fund track the 2019 Index. For example, the 2019 Fund may invest in municipal bonds not included in the 2019 Index in order to reflect prospective changes in 8 See Arca Equities Rules 5. The 2018 Index and 2019 Index values, calculated and disseminated at least once daily, as well as the components of the 2018 Index and 2019 Index and their percentage weightings, will be available from major market data vendors. The Commission believes that the proposal to list and trade the Shares is reasonably designed to promote fair disclosure of information that may be necessary to price the Shares appropriately and to prevent trading when a reasonable degree of transparency cannot be assured. The Exchange states that the Index Provider is not a broker-dealer or affiliated with a broker-dealer, and has implemented procedures designed to prevent the use and dissemination of material, nonpublic information regarding the U. In addition, the Exchange may consider all relevant factors in exercising its discretion to halt or suspend trading in the Shares of the Funds. Trading may be halted because of market conditions or for reasons that, in the view of the Exchange, make trading in the Shares inadvisable. The Exchange states that it has in place 15 the Commission also notes that an investment adviser to an open-end fund is required to be registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (``Advisers Act').

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