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Repression: a person pushes painful memories or anxiety out of her consciousness; a person denies or forgets what is disturbing her treatment depression discount 500 mg cefuroxime mastercard. If a person thinks symptoms 2 days before period purchase cefuroxime 250mg with visa, for example symptoms white tongue cheap 500 mg cefuroxime with mastercard, that others dislike him when in reality he dislikes himself treatment zoster safe 500mg cefuroxime, he is said to be projecting. Reaction Formation Reaction formation involves replacing an unacceptable feeling or urge with an opposite one. Unconsciously, he believes it is terribly wrong for a father to react that way, so he showers the child with expressions of love, toys, and exciting trips. A woman who finds her powerful ambitions unacceptable may play the role of a weak, helpless, passive female who 382 Chapter 14 / Theories of Personality wants nothing more than to please the men in her life-unconsciously covering up her true feelings. Have you ever put on a front and acted strong and confident when you were really scared? Regression Regression means going back to an earlier and less mature pattern of behavior. When a person is under severe pressure, he may start acting in ways that helped him in the past. For example, he may throw a temper tantrum, make faces, cry loudly, or revert to eating and sleeping all the time the way he did as a small child. If you have ever been tempted to stick out your lower lip and pout when you know that you should really accept that you cannot have your own way, you have experienced regression. Displacement Displacement occurs when you cannot take out your anger on the source of your frustrations, so you displace it or take it out on a less powerful person. For example, if you wanted to hit your father but were afraid to, you might hit your little brother instead. Your poor brother gets slapped around partly because he reminds you of your father and partly because he is not as likely to hit back. Sublimation Sublimation refers to redirecting a forbidden desire into a socially acceptable desire. Frank Sulloway (1996) studied birth-order effects on personalities, coming up with the following characteristics: · Firstborns are interested in preserving the status quo; later-borns are more open to new experiences and ideas. After Freud, it became easier to understand why human life contains so much conflict. It is a matter, Freud thought, of a savage individual coming to terms with the rules of society. In a healthy person, the ego (the "I") is strong enough to handle the struggle (Hall, 1954). In his theory of psychosexual development, Freud reasoned that a child goes through five stages of development-oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Freud believed that personality was well formed by the time the child entered school and that subsequent growth consisted of elaborating this basic structure. Freud was the first person to demonstrate how the personality develops in a person. At the other extreme, many have accused Freud of being unscientific by proposing a theory that is too complex to be tested. When Freud and Jung started to argue about psychoanalytic theory, though, their personal relationship became strained. First, he took a more positive view of human nature, believing that people try to develop their potential as well as handle their instinctual urges. They reflect the common experiences of humanity regarding mothers, fathers, nature, war, and so on (see Figure 14. Jung went on to identify the archetypes by studying dreams and visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, and religions. He found that many cultures share certain myths, dreams, religious beliefs, and symbols separated by time. For example, the story of Jack and the Beanstalk is essentially the same as the story of 384 Chapter 14 / Theories of Personality David and Goliath. Jung believed such stories are common and easy to understand because the situations they describe have occurred over and over again in human history and have been stored as archetypes in the unconscious of every human being (Jung, 1963). Jung argued that these archetypes influence our thoughts and feelings and help us build the foundation of our personalities. We use the concepts in our personal unconscious and collective unconscious to develop our personalities. In the process of fitting our personalities to these beliefs, we may hide our real feelings and our real personalities, though.

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Understanding the effects of trauma on individuals medications mexico buy discount cefuroxime 500 mg on-line, groups medications blood thinners discount cefuroxime 250 mg mastercard, and communities is a key factor in delivering effective services medications with acetaminophen cheap 500 mg cefuroxime amex. As a supervised visitation monitor symptoms hypothyroidism purchase 500 mg cefuroxime with visa, it is estimated that 61% of men and 51% of women will experience at least one lifetime traumatic event. You will work with many children and families who have suffered some sort of trauma. Supervised visitation professionals who interact with clients who have experienced trauma should be understanding and sensitive to those experiences. The term "trauma" refers to experiences that cause intense physical and psychological stress reactions. Below are several types of traumatic events, although it is not an allinclusive list, as trauma differs for every individual. Hopefully, towards the end of Trauma informed care your time with the family, they will have was described in moved to the overcoming side of the trauma Chapter 5, Connecting continuum, indicating the processing of the Theory to Practice. Consider accessing any of the following to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how your organization can become trauma- informed. The National Council for Behavioral Health offers a number of trainings and resources to help organizations implement the most recent best practices. Thrive Initiative is the Maine based organization for leading organizations to become trauma-informed. There are a variety of practice abilities that monitors need when working with families, including healthy communication techniques, supportive modeling and parent coaching behaviors, effective conflict resolution, capabilities to build parent confidence, ability to construct goals for supervised visitation, and skills for building parent motivation. Monitors must use supportive verbal and non-verbal communication techniques to engage families in supervised visitation, but they can also use these visits as opportunities to model healthy communication for parents to use when supervision is no longer needed. Examples might be telling the custodial parent, "You are the expert on your child and I am here to support you both during visitation. My child was Tell me more about what games you play at sick last night and my car broke home. Avoid political discussions, Be assertive: direct participants to respond such as "Who are you voting for? Give directions: state specific outcomes and get feedback so it is clear that the recipient understands the message. Practice non-verbal skills: this includes behaviors such as head nods and eye contact. Visit monitors need to be aware of how their everyday posture, gestures, and body-space may affect communication. Use assertive confrontation only when appropriate, such as when a child is put at risk during a visit. Strategy #1: Active Listening Successful listening involves understanding how the speaker feels about what the speaker wants to communicate, not just the words being said. Active listening involves re-stating or paraphrasing what you hear to confirm that you have heard and understood. Barriers also can include distractions, trigger words, vocabulary differences, and limited attention spans. If you ever think of what you are going to say next while someone is talking to you, you have engaged in this communication barrier. Face the speaker, sit up straight or lean forward slightly to show your attentiveness, and maintain eye contact. Use encouraging "mhmm" or "okay" responses, nod, raise eyebrows and use prompts, such as, "What did you do then? It can be hard to focus, but try your best not to think of what you will say next. Try to let go of your distracting thoughts and continuously re-focus your attention to the speaker. Bring together separate pieces of a story or problem and check that you are connecting them correctly. Use brief, positive prompts to keep the conversation going and to show you are listening.

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When using a theory or framework for practice medicine 93 5298 purchase 500mg cefuroxime amex, monitors and staff can identify unique cases and work to symptoms bladder infection cefuroxime 500 mg on line increase their knowledge and research on new topics symptoms kidney pain buy 500 mg cefuroxime with mastercard. Theories Relevant to symptoms dengue fever discount 250 mg cefuroxime mastercard Supervised Visitation There are several theories that are relevant to supervised visitation; monitors should become familiar with them and their implications. It is important for monitors to understand the impact of adverse childhood experiences and how they may play a role in family functioning. Trauma-Informed Care ­This theory advances the idea that social service providers will not always be able to identify trauma but should assume that all clients have experienced some traumatic event(s). With this theory, providers are expected to work through service delivery without re-traumatizing a client. Protective Factors ­ Research shows that children in families that have certain protective factors are at a far reduced risk for child abuse and maltreatment. The protective factors include nurturing and attachment, knowledge of developmental stages, parental resilience, supportive social connections, concrete community supports, and social and emotional competence of children. It is important for monitors to know how to build the protective factors into supervised visitation practices to help support family health. Considering that all cases are different and some problems may be difficult to overcome, it is important for staff to help rebuild parent-child relationships by 102 focusing on strengths. Systems Theory ­ this theory is rooted in the idea that clients come from multiple systems in which an individual function. Parents and families are often working with many different community organizations or programs. The systems theory allows monitors to think about systems outside of the visitation center and how all systems affect the client. There have been numerous studies and research conducted that seek to define the impact of childhood experiences on adult outcomes. Felitti, who discovered that many of the adult participants dropping out of his first study had experienced sexual abuse during their childhoods. This discovery inspired a new study that explored the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and the adult development of mental health problems and physical illnesses. The study included more than 17,000 participants from 1995-1997; they were asked questions about traumatic or stressful events they might have encountered as children. The study included questions regarding: Abuse ­ Emotional, physical, and sexual; Neglect ­ Emotional, physical; Household Dysfunction ­ Mother treated violently, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, incarcerated household family member. The score is used to determine the amount of stress that an individual experienced during childhood. The toxic stress of experiencing something traumatic can make it possible to lose the ability to process events (good or bad) properly. This can lead to the development of unhealthy coping skills such as substance abuse. Children who have suffered from exposure to trauma have a harder time concentrating, following directions, or even learning because their prefrontal cortex (the area responsible for self-regulation and executive functioning) has been affected by early stress. Poor executive functioning has several consequences such as: the inability to control impulses Difficulty regulating emotions Difficulty handling challenges 107 Disease and Illness the stress response affects our immune system, which is what our bodies need in order to fight off disease and illnesses. Our immune system also serves to control the levels of inflammation in our bodies, therefore, when our stress response keeps our inflammation levels from being regulated, illnesses like heart disease and type 2 diabetes can develop. After discussing the impact of adverse childhood experiences, it is easy to segue into trauma and the lasting effects that trauma can have on clients. Rather than focusing on childhood experiences, trauma-informed care suggests that most people have experienced trauma and it is the job of social service providers to learn about the effects of trauma to deliver the most effective services. There are different forms of trauma; some forms include violence, rape, and assault. Trauma also results from the effects of neglect, abject poverty, discrimination, and oppression. Trauma can lead to depression, substance abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and/or anxiety disorders. Longterm Individuals experiencing the longterm effects of trauma may: Reexperience the trauma though memories. Become upset or anxious when reminded about the trauma (by something the person sees, hears, feels, smells, or tastes). Have trouble managing emotions because reminders may lead to anger and/or anxiety.

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Daydreaming serves useful purposes such as reminding us of or preparing us for events in our future treatment degenerative disc disease generic cefuroxime 500 mg free shipping. Review the Vocabulary Describe the symptoms of insomnia treatment 6th february trusted 500mg cefuroxime, sleep apnea symptoms herpes purchase 500 mg cefuroxime with mastercard, narcolepsy medicine x protein powder order 250mg cefuroxime mastercard, nightmares, night terrors, and sleepwalking. Visualize the Main Idea Use a flowchart similar to the one below to list and describe the five stages of sleep. Rausch visualized scenes from the movie and wrapped his mind in appealing thoughts. He had refused the anesthetic, and during the surgery, he swears he felt no pain-just a little tugging. After the surgery, he stood up and walked down the hall, riding the elevator to his hospital room. Vocabulary hypnosis posthypnotic suggestion biofeedback meditation · · · · Objectives · Determine how hypnosis relates to consciousness. Although hypnosis still conjures up images of a circus magician saying, "You are getting sleepy, very sleepy. Doctors and therapists use hypnosis to help people quit smoking, lose weight, manage stress, overcome phobias, and diminish pain. Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought. By allowing the hypnotist to guide and direct them, hypnosis: a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility Chapter 7 / Altered States of Consciousness 191 people can be made conscious of things they are usually unaware of and Profiles In Psychology unaware of things they usually notice. Participants Franz Anton Mesmer may recall in vivid detail incidents they had forgot1734­1815 ten or feel no pain when "Truth is nothing but a pricked with a needle. It path traced between happens in this way: At all times, certain sensations errors. For example, as you read this sentence, you were probaranz Anton Mesmer missed the narrow path of truth; he also bly not aware of the posimissed the signs in his path that his science was faulty. Mesmer, tion of your feet until I however, became the first person to study and practice hypnosis. By Mesmer believed that the human body is filled with a magnetic mentioning the position of fluid that can become misaligned, causing illness. Mesmer treated medical problems by placing his pashifted to your feet-an tients in a tub filled with water and iron filings; large iron rods proarea of your body that truded from the tub. Hypnosis shifts our percepLater, Mesmer got rid of the magnet and used his own hand, tions in the same way. Before Mesmer treated his patients, he the participant to sleep, as told them to expect certain reactions, and his patients responded as anticipated. In fact, to exist, he paved the way for studies relating to the readiness of participants become highly some subjects to obey hypnotic suggestions and enter an altered state receptive and responsive to of consciousness. They are able to focus their attention on one tiny aspect of reality and ignore all other inputs. The hypnotist induces a trance by slowly persuading a participant to relax and to lose interest in external distractions. Psychologists using hypnosis stress that the relationship between hypnotist and participant should involve cooperation, not domination. Some, like Theodore Barber (1965), argue that hypnosis is not a special state of consciousness but simply the result of suggestibility. If people are just given instructions and told to try their hardest, they will be able to do anything that hypnotized people can do. Others, like Ernest Hilgard (1986), believe that there is something Reading Check special about the hypnotic state. People who are hypnotized are very What type of relationship suggestible; they go along with the hypnotist and do not initiate activi- is needed between a hypnotist ties themselves; and they can more easily imagine and remember and participant? Hilgard believes that consciousness includes many different aspects that may become separated, or dissociated, during hypnosis.


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