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From the results it is observed that more than 70% were unaware of the harmful effects of tobacco allergy testing japan cheap 25 mg promethazine mastercard. Majority of the females use smokeless tobacco and smoking tobacco was common among males allergy forecast oklahoma buy promethazine 25mg without a prescription. Effectiveness of antitobacco counseling is greater among the females compared with males allergy partners buy promethazine 25mg with amex. Health professionals are encouraged to allergy zucchini symptoms cheap promethazine 25 mg with visa disseminate information on the subject as widely as possible and improve existing screening programs to ensure that the public is made aware of these risks, especially those within high-risk groups. Low awareness of cancer delays help-seeking and contributes to late presentation, poor detection and survival. We developed a culturally sensitive mass media campaign to increase awareness about the signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer among Malaysians, which was informed by previously successful campaigns in Northern Ireland. Aim: the aim of this study is to analyze the public engagement with the campaign on social media and to identify whether the public recognizes the campaign materials postintervention. The engagement with the Web site and the social media campaign will be analyzed on a daily basis to respond to public engagement immediately. A populationbased survey postintervention including a randomly selected sample of approximately 700 participants will evaluate whether people recall the campaign key messages and have noticed the campaign materials. Low-middle income countries are recommended to prioritize public education as a first step toward cancer prevention and early detection. Mass media campaigns have been found to be effective in increasing cancer awareness and screening uptake in western countries as well as cost-effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. A number of studies have used mass and or small media components in Asian countries. Aim: this systematic review aims to deliver an overview of small and mass media campaigns in Asia and to assess their effectiveness in improving cancer awareness. Furthermore, we handsearch reference lists of relevant reviews and studies and run a search in relevant journals individually. Peer-reviewed studies that were published in the English language before September 2017 and targeted adults aged 18 year or over in Asia, were included. We excluded studies targeting minority populations living abroad as well as studies that included individual or group components in addition to the media components. A total of 479 titles were included in the abstract screen and 51 articles were included in the full-text screen. The full-text screen is currently ongoing and the results will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review summarizing the effectiveness of media campaigns to improve cancer awareness in Asia. The full results of the systematic review will be valuable to inform future mass and small media campaigns in Asian countries. These women were followed up with Ca125 three monthly for 2 years then six monthly. Usoro1 1 University of Calabar, Nigeria, Medical Laboratory Science, Calabar, Nigeria; 2University of Uyo, Nigeria, Uyo, Nigeria Background: Female reproductive hormones have been implicated in the etiology of breast cancer, while oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species have been linked to various steps involved in carcinogenesis including cellular transformation, proliferation and metastasis. Results: the percentage of women with breast lump, breast pain, nipple discharge, high alcohol and fat intake were higher in women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer (P, 0. Conclusion: Breast cancer is associated with increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress index which may be involved in the progression of the disease. Htun Shwe Yaung Hnin Si Cancer Foundation Myanmar, Yangon, Myanmar Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females in Myanmar but patients often receive treatment rather late. Delays in seeking treatment of breast cancer for a period longer than 3 months, is associated with lower survival. Hence it is important to find out the causes of the delays so that necessary measures may be implemented with a view to improving treatment outcome. Aim: To explore the delays and barriers to early diagnosis and treatment among the breast cancer patients in Yangon. Reasons for patient delay were not knowing that painless small breast lump could be serious (37. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge was the highest cause of the patient delay, followed by perception, socioeconomic factors and accessibility to health care and so these need to be overcome.
Seizures are partial (or focal) or generalized: partial seizures originate in a localized area of cortex and generalized seizures involve diffuse regions of the brain in a bilaterally symmetric fashion allergy symptoms 3 dpo order 25 mg promethazine. Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal) cause sudden loss of consciousness milk allergy symptoms in 18 month old purchase promethazine 25 mg with visa, loss of postural control allergy medicine singulair buy 25 mg promethazine free shipping, tonic muscular contraction producing teeth-clenching and rigidity in extension (tonic phase) allergy treatment seasonal discount promethazine 25mg fast delivery, followed by rhythmic muscular jerking (clonic phase). In absence seizures (petit mal) there is sudden, brief impairment of consciousness without loss of postural control. Minor motor symptoms are common, while complex automatisms and clonic activity are not. Other types of generalized seizures include tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures. Etiology Seizure type and age of pt provide important clues to etiology (Table 191-2). Differential diagnosis (Table 191-3) includes syncope or psychogenic seizures (pseudoseizures). Asymmetries in neurologic exam suggest brain tumor, stroke, trauma, or other focal lesions. The presence of electrographic seizure activity during the clinically evident event, i. The absence of electrographic seizure activity does not exclude a seizure disorder, however. Seizures and Epilepsy Acutely, the pt should be placed in semiprone position with head to the side to avoid aspiration. Longer-term therapy includes treatment of underlying conditions, avoidance of precipitating factors, prophylactic therapy with antiepileptic medications or surgery, and addressing various psychological and social issues. Choice of antiepileptic drug therapy depends on a variety of factors including seizure type, dosing schedule, and potential side effects (Tables 191-5 and 191-6). Therapeutic goal is complete cessation of seizures without side effects using a single drug (monotherapy) and a dosing schedule that is easy for the pt to follow. If ineffective, medication should be increased to maximal tolerated dose based primarily on clinical response rather than serum levels. If unsuccessful, a second drug should be added, and when control is obtained, the first drug can be slowly tapered. Other mental faculties are also affected in dementia, such as language, visuospatial ability, calculation, judgment, and problem solving. Neuropsychiatric and social deficits develop in many dementia syndromes, resulting in depression, withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, agitation, insomnia, and disinhibition. A score of <24 points (out of 30) indicates a need for more detailed cognitive and physical assessment. It is essential to exclude treatable etiologies; in one study, the most common potentially reversible diagnoses were depression, hydrocephalus, and alcohol dependence. The major degenerative dementias can usually be distinguished by distinctive symptoms, signs, and neuroimaging features (Table 192-2). History A subacute onset of confusion may represent delirium and should trigger the search for intoxication, infection, or metabolic derangement (Chap. A history of stroke suggests vascular dementia, which may also occur with hypertension, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes. Rapid progression of dementia with myoclonus suggests a prion disease such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. A history of head trauma could indicate chronic subdural hematoma, dementia pugilistica, or normal-pressure hydrocephalus. A history of gastric surgery may result in loss of intrinsic factor and vitamin B12 deficiency. Insomnia or weight loss is often seen with pseudodementia due to depression, which can also be caused by the recent death of a loved one.
He has become increasingly anxious allergy forecast philadelphia pa discount promethazine 25mg visa, aggressive allergy shots tree nuts promethazine 25 mg with visa, destructive allergy symptoms children purchase promethazine 25mg mastercard, and restless since that time allergy testing santa monica promethazine 25mg online. The boy used to know his letters, shapes and colors, but no longer recognizes them consistently. On physical examination, he has macrocephaly, slightly coarse facial features, a mildly enlarged liver, and a small umbilical hernia. Screening in the office demonstrates that he has mild hearing loss bilaterally and normal vision. Sanfilippo syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in 1 of 4 lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of a glycosaminoglycan called heparan sulfate. The first stage occurs between the ages of 1 and 4 years, when the child begins to show developmental delay after developing normally. Stage 2 occurs around 3 to 4 years of age, with developmental regression, severe behavioral problems, and progressive mental deterioration. During this time, facial dysmorphology becomes more obvious, with coarsening of facial features, synophrys (hair between the eyebrows), thick lips, and macrocephaly. In the third and final stage, the behavioral problems disappear as the child becomes more mentally incapacitated with severe dementia. Swallowing difficulties and spasticity emerge, with these children ultimately becoming gastrostomy tube-dependent and unable to walk. There may be mild hepatosplenomegaly, as well as frequent otitis media, sinus infections, and respiratory problems. Most affected children die at the end of the second or the beginning of the third decade of life. Developmental regression is a serious red flag that suggests the presence of an inborn error of metabolism associated with neurologic deterioration and intellectual disability. Any patient presenting with developmental regression warrants a genetic and neurologic evaluation with a subsequent thorough investigation for metabolic disorders and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Hundreds of metabolic disorders can present with progressive neurologic deterioration. The differential diagnosis depends on the constellation of symptoms, which may include epilepsy, dystonia, ataxia, organomegaly, visual loss, hearing loss, myoclonus, paraplegia, spasticity, unusual odors, and others. There are specific treatments that, if begun very early in life, can lead to a normal or near-normal outcome. Examples of treatable metabolic disorders that are otherwise associated with intellectual disability include biotinidase deficiency, maple syrup urine disease, and phenylketonuria. Biotinidase deficiency presents in young children with progressive seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, vision problems, hearing loss, and skin rashes with alopecia. Children treated from early infancy with oral biotin (5-10 mg) daily can live a normal life. Once developmental delay and other neurologic problems have occurred, they are generally irreversible. This disorder highlights the importance of newborn screening for early diagnosis and treatment. Patients with maple syrup urine disease present with a "maple syrup" odor, elevated branchedchain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), ketonuria, irritability, and poor feeding in the first few days after birth. By 4 to 5 days of age, they will rapidly decompensate, developing lethargy, intermittent apnea, opisthotonus, and encephalopathy. Treatment consists of dietary leucine restriction, specially manufactured branched chain amino acid-free foods, isoleucine and valine supplementation, and frequent clinical and biochemical screening. Laboratory evaluation will demonstrate elevation of the very-longchain fatty acid levels. Phenylketonuria presents with a mousy or musty odor, microcephaly, epilepsy, decreased skin and hair pigmentation, eczema, and progressive intellectual disability. This disorder is treatable with dietary management, which should begin in early infancy to minimize deficit. Comprehensive evaluation of the child with intellectual disability or global developmental delays. She had a pregnancy scare approximately 3 months ago and wants to know if she needs parental consent to start birth control pills.
The pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive allergy forecast for san antonio purchase 25mg promethazine visa, with a number of established allergy treatment bioallers promethazine 25mg for sale, large pharmaceutical companies allergy medicine antihistamine buy promethazine 25 mg on-line, as well as many smaller companies allergy medicine bloody nose purchase 25mg promethazine with visa. Most of these companies have significant financial resources, marketing capabilities and experience in obtaining regulatory approvals for product candidates. There are many pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, public and private universities, government agencies and research organizations actively engaged in research and development of products that may target the same markets as our product candidates. We expect any future products we develop to compete on the basis of, among other things, product efficacy, price, lack of significant adverse side effects and convenience and ease of treatment. Our competitors also may develop drugs that are more effective, more widely used and less costly than ours and also may be more successful than us in manufacturing and marketing their products. If tavaborole is approved for the treatment of onychomycosis, we anticipate that it would compete with other marketed nail fungal therapeutics including Lamisil, Sporanox, Onmel, Penlac and generic versions of those compounds. For mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis, competing treatments would include: combinations of antibiotics, antihistamines, topical corticosteroids and topical immunomodulators, such as Elidel (pimecrolimus) and Protopic (tacrolimus); and, for psoriasis, Taclonex (a combination of calcipotriene and the high potency corticosteroid, betamethasone dipropionate), Dovonex (calcipotriene), Tazorac (tazarotene) and generic versions, where available. A number of other treatments are used for psoriasis, including light-based treatments and non-prescription topical treatments. There are also several pharmaceutical product candidates under development that could potentially be used to treat onychomycosis and compete with tavaborole. On October 2, 2013, Valeant received one regulatory approval for efinaconazole, under the brand name Jublia, from Health Canada. The success of efinaconazole would be expected to decrease the value of tavaborole. There are several companies pursuing various devices for onychomycosis, including laser technology. Even if a generic product or an over-the-counter product is less effective than our product candidates, a less effective generic or over-the-counter product may be more quickly adopted by health insurers and patients than our competing product candidates based upon cost or convenience. In addition, each of our product candidates may compete against product candidates currently under development by other companies. If there is not sufficient reimbursement for our products, it is less likely that our products will be widely used. Successful commercialization of pharmaceutical products usually depends on the availability of adequate coverage and reimbursement from healthcare payors. Patients or healthcare providers who purchase drugs generally rely on healthcare payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with such products. Current treatments for onychomycosis are often not reimbursed by healthcare payors. Only generic formulations of current treatments are generally reimbursed by healthcare payors. We do not know the extent to which tavaborole will be reimbursed if it is approved. Reimbursement decisions by healthcare payors may have an effect on pricing and market acceptance. Our products are less likely to be used if they do not receive adequate reimbursement. Industry competition to be included in such formularies results in downward pricing pressures on pharmaceutical companies. Healthcare payors may refuse to include a particular branded drug in their formularies when a competing generic product is available. All healthcare payors, whether governmental or commercial, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs. In addition, in the United States, no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for medicines exists among all these payors. Therefore, coverage of and reimbursement for drugs can differ significantly from payor to payor and can be difficult and costly to obtain. There are systems for reimbursement and pricing approval in each country and moving a product through those systems is time consuming and expensive. Healthcare policy changes, including the Healthcare Reform Act, may have a material adverse effect on us.
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