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By: Leonard S. Lilly, MD

  • Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Chief, Brigham and Women's/Faulkner Cardiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts


The three chains need to symptoms e coli trusted solian 50mg be closely packed within the molecule to new medicine purchase 100 mg solian with mastercard allow hydrogen bonding to 10 medications that cause memory loss order solian 50 mg with visa take place symptoms gluten intolerance solian 100 mg with visa. Glycine has the smallest side chain and is present at every third position along the chain. The alignment of adjacent chains needs to be such that the small side chain of glycine projects into the centre of coiled molecule, the larger side chains projecting out. In order to bring glycine into the required internal position in the helix, molecular models have shown that to achieve the maximum number of hydrogen bonds and to minimize the hindrance of larger side chains, each chain of the triple helix needs to be staggered by one amino acid with respect to its neighbour. The stability of the fibril depends on crosslinks formed between adjacent molecules, i. When acidic and basic end groups of these side chains become aligned, electrostatic salt links can form (Figure 2. The sequence of amino acids along each chain of the triple helix has been determined and this has shown there to be distinct alternate grouping of amino acids with either polar or non-polar side chains giving rise to domains along the chain that are either only polar or non-polar in reaction (Figure 2. When the collagen fibril is immersed in an electronoptically dense metallic stain for several Collagen: the leathermaking protein 7 Rich in polar residues Rich in imino acid and non-polar residues Rich in polar residues Figure 2. This enables their location to be revealed under the transmission electron microscope. A fibril stained in this way exhibits a regular dark banding at intervals of 67 nm (Figure 2. Since the sum of the band spacing does not coincide with the length of the molecule, a gap must therefore exist between the end of one molecule and the beginning of the next. This banding has also led to the theory that adjacent molecules are displaced relative to one another by one quarter of their length, as shown 8 Conservation of leather and related materials Figure 2. At each end of the triple helix there is a short non-helical region called the telopeptide. Covalent bonds form between the telopeptide region of one molecule and the helical region of an adjacent molecule (Figure 2. Such an array leaves no weak point along the fibril which could give way under stress. There have been various theories as to the spatial arrangement of the aligned molecules within the fibril. Some indication of the internal structure of Collagen: the leathermaking protein 9 Figure 2. The swollen fibril exhibited longitudinal striations with a helical twist (Figure 2. Therefore the fibril would appear to be made up of a series of helical coils, alternating in direction, beginning with the backbone chain of the molecule, then the triple helix and finally the grouping of molecules within the fibril. The collagen fibrils are remarkably consistent in diameter, irrespective of animal type or location within the skin. It is only at the extreme grain surface where fibrils smaller in diameter have been found. Under the transmission electron microscope there appears to be a distinct grouping of fibrils into larger units or elementary fibres. The elementary fibres are in turn grouped into fibre bundles which then interweave through the skin in the manner already described. Mammalian skin collagen that has received no chemical processing shrinks at about 65°C. There is little variation in this temperature with different mammalian species or different regions of the skin. The reason for this shrinkage is that the backbone chains of the molecule exist in an extended form, held in this form by hydrogen bonding. When collagen is heated a point is reached at which the energy input exceeds that of the hydrogen bonding. There is then a sudden release from the extended form and the fibre shrinks to a rubber-like consistency. Only the remaining covalent and salt links hold the collagen molecules together and prevent the shrunken collagen from immediately going into solution. Prolonged exposure to alkali, such as in the liming process, causes changes to certain amino acids; these changes in turn reduce the degree of hydrogen bonding within the collagen molecule. As a consequence, the shrinkage temperature of skins that have been limed falls to 60°C or even 55°C.

The sulfur was rinsed several times with distilled water medications causing gout buy solian 100 mg with mastercard, then remelted symptoms 3 months pregnant discount 100mg solian visa, cooled medicine symbol discount 50 mg solian free shipping, and rinsed several times with distilled water again treatment urinary incontinence discount solian 50 mg visa, this process being repeated four or five times to remove most of the acid entrapped in the sulfur. An air-cooled reflux tube (ca 40cm long) was attached to one of the necks of the flask, and a gas delivery tube (the lower end about 2. After 4hours, the sulfur was cooled so that the reflux tube could be replaced by a bent air-cooled condenser. The sulfur was then distilled, rejecting the first and the final 100mL portions, and transferred in 200mL portions to 400mL glass cylinder ampoules (which were placed on their sides during solidification). After adding about 80mL of water, displacing the air with N2, the ampoule Purification of Inorganic Compounds 499 was cooled, and the water was titrated with 0. Finally, entrapped water was removed by alternate evacuation to 10mm Hg and refilling with N2 while the sulfur was kept molten. It has also been boiled with 1% MgO, then decanted, and dried under a vacuum at 40o for 2days over P 2O5. It has been purified by fractional crystallisation of the monohydrate from the liquid. It has a very strong dehydrating action and attacks skin-wash immediately with cold H2 O; otherwise the skin can be scarred for life. Dilution with H2 O is highly exothermic, and because the concentrated acid is much more dense than H2 O it is diluted by running the concentrated acid down the side of the container of H2 O with slowly stirring while cooling the outside of the container. Fractionate this fraction over sulfur at ca 12mm using a ground glass apparatus (b 29-30o). Alternatively purify it by distillation below 60o from a mixture containing sulfur (2%) and activated charcoal (1%), under reduced pressure. The lower cloudy layer is removed, dried for some time in a desiccator over P2O5 and finally fractionate it at atmospheric pressure. It forms colourless needles 4 500 Purification of Inorganic Compounds when pure (yellow when contaminated with even less than 1% of NbCl5). Purify it by zone refining and repeated sublimation to an impurity of less than 1 part in 108 (except for surface contamination by TeO2). It has also been purified by electrode deposition [Mathers & Turner Trans Amer Electrochem Soc 54 293 1928]. After decanting the supernatant, the precipitate is washed five times with distilled water, then dried for 24hours at 110o [Horner & Leonhard J Am Chem Soc 74 3694 1952]. It is then washed until acid-free, heated to 300o for 2-3hours and stored in brown bottles. The sulfate crystallises from hot water (7mL/g) by cooling; then dry it under vacuum over P2O5. Further purification is achieved by redistillation from linseed oil (1-2%) [Rigby Chem Ind (London) 1508 1969]. Gas chromatographically pure material is obtained by distillation from 10% (w/w) triphenyl phosphite [Friedman & Wetter J Chem Soc (A) 36 1967, Larsen et al. The solubility of the decahydrate increases with increase in temperature, whereas the solubility of the tetrahydrate decreases with increase of temperature. The TiCl4 is then distilled, refluxed with copper and again distilled, taking precautions to exclude moisture. Volatile impurities are then removed using a technique of freezing, pumping and melting. Purify tritium from hydrocarbons and 3He by diffusion through the wall of a hot nickel tube [Landecker & Gray Rev Sci Instrum 25 1151 1954]. Sublime it in a stream of Cl2 in a high temperature furnace and collect it in a receiver cooled in a Dry Ice-acetone bath in an inert atmosphere because it is sensitive to moisture. Also purify it by low-temperature trap-to-trap distillation over pre-dried NaF [Anderson & Winfield J Chem Soc, Dalton Trans 337 1986]. Crystallise the nitrate from water by cooling to -5o, taking only the middle fraction of the solid which separates.

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When the drop-down variants of the combo box are used medicine 657 buy 50mg solian with amex, the control shows the current selection without consuming space to treatment modality definition buy generic solian 100mg on-line show the list of choices symptoms xanax overdose safe solian 100mg. Essentially medications not to be crushed generic 50 mg solian with mastercard, it becomes a list-on-demand, much like a menu provides a list of immediate commands on demand. If drag-and-drop is implemented in list controls, it should also be implemented in combo boxes. For example, being able to open a combo box, scroll to a choice, and then drag the choice onto a document under construction is a very powerful idiom. The entries can be expanded or collapsed the way that many outline processors work. It is often used as a file system navigator, and is a highly effective way to present inherently hierarchical information. Unfortunately, hierarchical trees are one of the most inappropriately used controls in the toolbox. They can be highly problematic for users; many people have difficulty thinking in terms of hierarchical data structures. We have seen countless interfaces where programmers have forced nonhierarchical data into a tree control with the rationale that trees are "intuitive. In general, it only makes sense to use a treeview (no matter how tempting it may be) in the case where what is being represented is "naturally" thought of as a hierarchy (such as a family tree). Using a treeview to represent arbitrary objects organized in an arbitrary fashion at the whim of a programmer is asking for big trouble when it comes to usability. Entry Controls Entry controls enable users to enter new information into an application, rather than merely selecting information from an existing list. Because a combo box contains an edit field, some combo box variants qualify as entry controls, too. Bounded and unbounded entry controls Any control that restricts the available set of values that a user can enter is a bounded entry control. It is thus impossible for users to enter an invalid value with bounded entry controls. If the program needs a number between 7 and 35, presenting users with a control that accepts any numeric value from ­1,000,000 to +1,000,000 is not doing anyone any favors. People would much rather be presented with a control that embodies 7 as its bottom limit and 35 as its upper limit (clearly indicating these limits is also useful). Users are smart, and they will immediately comprehend and respect the limits of their sandbox. It is important to understand that we mean a quality of the entry control and not of the data. To be a bounded control, it needs to clearly communicate, preferably visually, the acceptable data boundaries to the user. Most quantitative values needed by software are bounded, yet many programs allow unbounded entry with numeric fields. When a user inadvertently enters a value that the program cannot accept, the program issues an error message box. A user types 17, and we reward this innocent entry with an error message box that says "You can only enter values between 4 and 8. If the bounded set of choices is composed of text rather than numbers, you can still use a slider of some type, or a combo box, or list box. Figure 21-15 shows a bounded slider used by Microsoft in the Windows Display Settings dialog. It works like a slider or scrollbar, but has four discrete positions that represent distinct resolution settings. In many cases, a slider is a nice choice because it telegraphs the range of valid entries. Chapter 21: Controls 459 Figure 21-15 A bounded control lets users enter only valid values. It does not let them enter invalid values, only to reject them when then try to move on.

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The Aldrich Kьgelrohr Distillation Apparatus (see Aldrich-Sigma Labware catalogue) is made up of small glass bulbs (ca 4-5cm diameter) which are joined together via Quickfit joints at each pole of the bulbs treatment 2 lung cancer buy solian 50 mg mastercard. The liquid (or low melting solid) to medications used to treat bipolar purchase solian 100 mg without a prescription be purified is placed in the first bulb of a series of bulbs joined end to medicine quiz discount solian 100mg free shipping end medicine while pregnant 50 mg solian mastercard, and the system can be evacuated. Bьchi Kьgelrohr micro distillation oven from Sigma-Aldrich Labware catalogue) at a high temperature whereby most of the material distils into the second bulb (which is outside of the furnace). The second bulb is then moved into the furnace and the furnace temperature is reduced by ca 5o whereby the liquid in the second bulb distils into the third bulb (at this stage the first bulb is now out at the back of the furnace, and the third and subsequent bulbs are outside the front of the furnace). The furnace temperature is lowered by a further ca 5o, and the third bulb is moved into the furnace. The process is continued until no 14 Common Physical Techniques in Purification more material distils into the subsequent bulb. The vacuum (if applied) and the furnace are removed, the bulbs are separated and the various fractions of distillates are collected from the individual bulbs. This procedure is used for preliminary purification and the distillates are then redistilled or recrystallised. This technique can be useful for the preparation of metal-free solutions of volatile acids and bases for use in trace metal studies. The procedure involves placing two beakers, one of distilled water and the other of a solution of the material to be purified, in a desiccator. The volatile components distribute themselves between the two beakers whereas the non-volatile contaminants remain in the original beaker. This technique has afforded metal-free pure solutions of ammonia, hydrochloric acid and hydrogen fluoride. To prevent crystallisation during this filtration, a heated filter funnel can be used, or the solution can be diluted with more of the solvent. Usually, centrifugation is preferred because of the greater ease and efficiency of separating crystals and mother liquor, and also because of the saving of time and effort, particularly when very small crystals are formed or when there is entrainment of solvent. If the solution contains extraneous coloured material likely to contaminate the crystals, this can often be removed by adding some activated charcoal (decolorising carbon) to the hot, but not boiling, solution which is then shaken frequently for several minutes before being filtered. This is usually satisfactory with inorganic material, so that commonly the filtrate is cooled in an ice-water bath while being vigorously stirred. In many cases, however, organic molecules crystallise much more slowly, so that the filtrate must be set aside to cool to room temperature or left in the refrigerator. It is often desirable to subject material that is very impure to preliminary purification, such as steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, or sublimation, before recrystallising it. A greater degree of purity is also to be expected if the crystallisation process is repeated several times, especially if different solvents are used. The advantage of several crystallisations from different solvents lies in the fact that the material sought, and its impurities, are unlikely to have similar solubilities as solvents and temperatures are varied. For the final separation of solid material, sintered-glass discs are preferable to filter paper. Also, with filter paper, cellulose fibres are likely to become included in the sample. The sintered-glass discs or funnels can be readily cleaned by washing in freshly prepared chromic acid cleaning mixture. The solutions are cooled to -78o in a dry-ice/acetone bath, to give a slurry which is filtered off through a precooled Bьchner funnel. Experimental details, as applied to the purification of nitromethane, are given by Parrett and Sun [J Chem Educ 54 448 1977]. Where substances vary little in solubility with temperature, isothermal crystallisation may sometimes be employed. This usually takes the form of a partial evaporation of a saturated solution at room temperature by leaving it under reduced pressure in a desiccator. However, in rare cases, crystallisation is not a satisfactory method of purification, especially if the impurity forms crystals that are isomorphous with the material being purified. In fact, the impurity content may even be greater in Common Physical Techniques in Purification 15 such recrystallised material. For this reason, it still remains necessary to test for impurities and to remove or adequately lower their concentrations by suitable chemical manipulation prior to recrystallisation.

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