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Photosynthetic bacteria have pigments in (1) chromoplasts (2) leucoplasts (3) chromatophores (4) chloroplasts Ans: (3) (1) Sesbania (2) Anabaena (3) Bacillus polymexa (4) Bacillus popilliae Ans: (2) Q123 impotence solutions purchase cialis soft 20mg fast delivery. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in the industrial production of (1) ethanol (2) citric acid (3) butanol (4) tetracycline Ans: (1)  Q124 erectile dysfunction nitric oxide buy 20mg cialis soft free shipping. Which one of the following micro-organisms is used for production of citric acid in industries? Puccinia forms (1) uredia and aecia on barberry leaves (2) uredia and aecia on wheat leaves (3) uredia and pycnia on barberry leaves (4) uredia and telia on wheat leaves Ans: (4)  Q126 erectile dysfunction red pill cheap cialis soft 20mg with mastercard. In fungi stored food material is (1) sucrose (2) glycogen (3) glucose (4) starch Ans: (2)  Q127 young and have erectile dysfunction 20 mg cialis soft visa. A virus can be considered a living organism because it (1) reproduces (inside the host) (2) responds to touch stimulus (3) can cause disease (4) respires Ans: (1) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Enzymes are absent in (1) Algae (2) Cyanobacteria (3) Fungi (4) Viruses Ans: (4) in Q129. A good green manure in rice fields is (1) Salvinia (2) Aspergillus (3) Mucor (4) Azolla Ans: (4) jo   Q130. Extra-nuclear inheritance occurs in (1) Phenylketonuria (2) Killer strain in Paramecium (3) Tay sach disease (4) Colour blindness Ans: (2)  Q133. Interferons are synthesized in response to (1) Viruses (2) Mycoplasma (3) Fungi (4) Bacteria Ans: (1) Q134. Industrial production of ethanol from starch is brought about by (1) Azotobacter (2) Saccharomyces (3) Penicillium (4) Lactobacillus Ans: (2) jo in  Q135. Black rust of wheat is caused by (1) Aspergillus (2) Puccinia (3) Rhizopus (4) Mucor Ans: (2)  Q136. Adhesive pad of fungi penetrates the host with the help of (1) softening by enzymes (2) mechanical pressure and enzymes (3) only by mechanical pressure (4) hooks and suckers Ans: (2) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Plant decomposers are (1) Protista and animalia (2) Monera and fungi (3) Animalia and monera (4) Fungi and plants Ans: (2)  Q138. Some bacteria are able to grow in Streptomycin containing medium due to (1) reproductive isolation (2) natural selection (3) genetic drift (4) Induced mutation Ans: (2)  Q146. The chief advantage of encystment to an Amoeba is (1) the ability to live for sometime without ingesting food (2) the chance to get rid of accumulated waste products (3) protection from parasites and predators (4) the ability to survive during adverse physical conditions Ans: (4)  Q149. Lichens are well known combination of an alga and a fungus where fungus has ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. Tobacco mosaic virus is a tubular filament of size (1) 300 Ч 5 nm (2) 700 Ч 30 nm (3) 300 Ч 20 nm (4) 300 Ч 10 nm Ans: (3)  Q155. For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is (1) Helicobactor pylori (2) Methophilic bacteria (3) Streptococcus lactin (4) Butyric acid bacteria Ans: (4)  Q157. Auxopores and hormocysts are formed, respectively, by: (1) Several cyanobacteria and several diatoms (2) Some diatoms and several cyanobacteria (3) Several diatoms and a few cyanobacteria. Viruses that infect bacteria, multiply and cause their lysis, are called (1) lytic (2) lysozymes (3) lysogenic (4) lipolytic Ans: (1) (1) nodulation of Sesbania stems by nitrogen fixing bacteria (2) cyanobacterial symbiosis with some aquatic ferns (3) plant growth stimulation by phosphatesolubilising bacteria (4) gall formation on certain angiosperms by Agrobacterium Ans: (4) ht tel tp eg s: ra //t m. The most thoroughly studied fact of the known bacteriaplant interactions is the  (1) B, C and F only (2) A, D and E only (3) A, C and E only (4) B, D and E only Ans: (2) jo in Q161. Which of the following environmental conditions are essential for optimum growth of Mucor on a piece of bread? A brightly illuminated place Choose the answer from the following options:  Q162. The thalloid body of a slime mould (Myxomycetes) is known as (1) mycelium (2) plasmodium (3) protonema (4) fruiting body Ans: (2)  Q163. Ergot of rye is caused by a species of (1) claviceps (2) uncimula (3) phytophthora. The causative agent of mad-cow disease is a (1) Bacterium (2) Prion (3) Virus (4) Worm Ans: (2)  Q171. In the light of recent classification of living organisms into three domains of life (bacteria, archaea and eukarya), which one of the following statements is true about archaea? Bacterial leaf blight of rice is caused by a species of (1) Alternaria (2) Xanthomonas (3) Erwinia (4) Pseudomonas Ans: (2)  Q175.
Soluble powder can be mixed with sterile water (mixed 1:10) and used as an eye spray erectile dysfunction in diabetes type 1 buy cialis soft 20 mg without prescription. May be effective in the initial therapy of upper respiratory infections erectile dysfunction pump walgreens cialis soft 20mg online, particularly when nebulized erectile dysfunction morning wood 20mg cialis soft visa. May be useful as an eye spray for the frequent treatment of conjunctivitis (particularly if mycoplasma is suspected) erectile dysfunction doctors in massachusetts cialis soft 20 mg otc. Tissue concentrations of tylosin may last for three hours following an hour of nebulization in quail and pigeons. Indicated in the treatment of Vitamin A and D3 deficiencies, bone healing, egg binding and other reproductive or debilitating diseases. Should be used with caution in species that appear to have problems with Vitamin D3 and calcium metabolism including macaws and African Grey Parrots. Indicated for cases of neuromuscular disease, debilitating illness of the liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and anemia. Can be given before or shortly after stressful event (capture) to reduce the chances of capture myopathy in long-legged birds. Can also be used to offset the effects of drugs that cause hemorrhage (eg, sulfas, amprolium). This drug is available in an injectable solution (23 mg/ml) that can be administered orally. Haver/Diamond Scientific Upjohn Company Bio-Ceutic Roerig Division Hoechst-Roussel Pharmaceuticals Route 202-206 P. Nonspecific clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases may include anorexia, dysphagia, regurgitation, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea and tenesmus. With polyuria, the feces are normal and are surrounded by a large volume of clear fluid, while with diarrhea the feces are abnormal (see Color 8). The composition and quality of food and ingestion of bedding material, poisonous plants or chemicals may influence gastrointestinal signs. Fecal evaluation, hematology, blood chemistry, radiology and esophago-ingluvio-(gastro)scopy or laparoscopy are considered indispensable diagnostic tools in avian gastroenterology. Cytologic examination of a fresh ingluvial aspirate is best for detecting flagellates (Trichomonas spp. Examination of freshly voided feces is essential to det e c t Histomonas meleagridis, Hexamita s p p. Direct microscopic examination of feces may reveal helminthic ova and protozoal oocysts. Flotation and sedimentation techniques are best for detecting the low number of eggs or oocysts that occur in an early parasitic infection (see Chapter 36). Parasites infecting the liver, kidney, uterus and pancreas can deposit ova or oocysts that can be detected in the feces. Parasite ova originating from the respiratory tract may be coughed up, swallowed and found in the excrement. Detection of campylobacter can be augmented by the use of Hemacolor; the bacteria appear S-shaped or in gull-wing form. Aviculturists classify caged birds into hardbills (eg, most psittacine birds) and softbills (eg, mynahs, starlings). In ducks and parrots, the tip of the bill contains well developed mechanoreceptor nerve endings. The beak is used for prehension, for the physical preparation of food, and in some species such as parrots, for locomotion. In large parrots, the complete rhinotheca is replaced in about six months, while in toucans the rhinotheca grows approximately 0. The rate of growth of the gnatotheca is about two to three times faster than that of the rhinotheca. Beak Diseases A variety of congenital and acquired defects, including scissor beak and mandibular prognathism, can interfere with normal beak function. In gallinaceous birds, a deformed upper mandible has been associated with embryonic deficiencies of folic acid, biotin or pantothenic acid. Crusty, scab-like lesions in the corners of the mouth are considered a definite sign of biotin or pantothenic acid deficiency in these birds. Traumatic fractures, especially of the mandible, occur frequently in psittacine birds that get caught in hooks suspended from the ceiling of their enclosures or as a result of fighting. Any bacterial, mycotic, viral or parasitic pathogen that damages the germinative layers of the beak can cause developmental abnormalities.
These chemicals are used extensively in most countries of both the Free World and the Communist Bloc impotence nerve cheap 20 mg cialis soft mastercard. But in this type of diarrhea erectile dysfunction treatment in urdu purchase cialis soft 20 mg online, which is accompanied by skin problems erectile dysfunction pills with no side effects 20 mg cialis soft, the children are dying impotence vacuum pumps discount cialis soft 20mg. One or two weeks later the first cases appeared in Mirandilla, Las Pavas, El Salitre, and it spread. In the same way, Luria suggests, human populations could be seeded with viruses, making them susceptible to introduced chemicals which, ordinarily, would have no effect, but would quickly become lethal. Even the medical community has occasionally expressed doubts about the implications of genetically engineered germs. If the latter should be the perverse goal of our paranoid society, can we construct a virus worse than rabies virus with its 100% case fatality rate or influenza virus with its pandemic potential for 20 million deaths worldwide? Copyright 1988 Jon Rappoport of a genetically unaltered 1951 influenza virus in 1977. The authors go on to concede that it is foolish to ignore the present-day Collective Laboratory, with its thousands and thousands of rooms, internationally, as a source for discovery of germs causing disease. Their skins were deliberately exposed to large doses and then monitored to watch the results. A powder disseminated into the air by grenades, bombs, and shells, it causes intense pain in the upper respiratory tract, severe skin-blistering in humid weather, and brings on acute anxiety and feelings of suffocation. And yes, there are certainly people who interpret breakfast or doing their laundry as directed from the Kremlin or Venus. This is important, because a wholly unwarranted defense of the purity of medical and biowarfare laboratories has taken place based on knee-jerking. How many germs are being dealt with by how many humans in how many labs in how many countries in how many experiments every day of every year around the world? Have you ever prowled through the stacks of a good biomedical library and gazed at the cumulative published results of this worldwide activity? The chances really are that many, many microbes have wended their way out of labs into the ordinary environment in which we live; and this is just to talk about accidental spreading of germs. In 1977 Senate hearings held by the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, a U. Army report noted that "the advent of limited war and small scale conflict evoked a need for weapons which could assist in controlling conflict with minimum casualties. In the November 1970 issue of Military Review, geneticist Carl Larson pointed out the possibility of designing chemicals to attack specific populations. Larson felt that "observed variations in drug response have pointed to the possibility of great innate differences in vulnerability to chemical agents between different populations. He told me that the patients who are now coming into his office have weirder and weirder stories. This despite the fact that her numbers of immune T-cells were very high, indicating that her immune response was good. Cuban officials at the time concluded that Cuban citizens were also contracting the Swine Fever in the form of backbreak fever, which in some cases was fatal. Central Intelligence Agency officials, operatives linked to anti-Castro terrorists introduced African swine fever virus into Cuba in 1971. Six weeks later an outbreak of the disease forced the slaughter of 500,000 pigs to prevent a nationwide animal epidemic. Copyright 1988 Jon Rappoport scheme against the Castro Cuban economy, "a ship traveled from Florida to Cuba with germs. And in June, 1980, Peter Winn, in the Nation, provided this piece of suggestive background: "During the past two years, Cuba has seen plant blights decimate its sugar, tobacco, and coffee crops, swine fever destroy its hog herds, and a Greek tanker foul its shellfish beds. African Swine Fever, in pigs, can produce pneumonia, swollen lymph nodes, slow wasting away, skin lesions, and of course fever. The idea was to drive peasants off their land into low-paying urban jobs and, from the outside, establish a new U. Copyright 1988 Jon Rappoport John Beldekas told Jack Anderson and Dale Van Atta (Washington Post, Oct. According to one report, the mariel Cuban boatlift to Florida, during the Carter administration, was at least one-third gay. Apparently, the Cuban government, which is anti-gay, had spy squads searching out and reporting on gay activity in Cuba, and had sent some of these gay men to the U.
Prescribing for patients who may have a dependence on a number of drugs erectile dysfunction research cialis soft 20 mg free shipping, who may wish to erectile dysfunction with age buy cialis soft 20mg cheap conceal the extent of their substance use laptop causes erectile dysfunction generic cialis soft 20mg online, and who may have a marked tolerance to food erectile dysfunction causes order cialis soft 20mg without prescription some classes of drug presents difficulties for the unwary or ill informed doctor. Heather1 succinctly describes the history and development of thinking underpinning these theories. Other theories or, perhaps more correctly, models of addiction have been popular in particular cultures or where partial explanations have utility, for example psychoanalytical interpretations of addictive behavior are common in some European countries, and equally, religious or moral failures are attractive reasons to account for addictive behavior where spiritual values are important as in many Asian and Indian communities. Certain conclusions inevitably follow from such a premise: (1) abstinence is the only treatment goal, (2) loss of control is the hallmark feature, (3) patients are not responsible for their "illness", (4) therapists tend to be medical practitioners, and, finally, (5) community-based prevention will be ineffective. In formulating a description of alcohol and later other drug dependence, Edwards and Gross2 argued against the disease model in favor of a biopsychosocial construction of dependence, which was identified as belonging to a separate dimension from substance related harms. The biopsychosocial description of dependence has been criticized for placing unwarranted emphasis on withdrawal symptoms. While the anticipation or experience of withdrawal may indeed be a potent source of negative reinforcement for drinking, it is not the only source of reinforcement, and it may be that the positive reinforcement of a pharmacological (drug) effect is more important whether or not an individual also experiences withdrawal. The withdrawal symptoms themselves are one step removed from the cognitive response to the symptoms, which may or may not include thoughts about drinking. If withdrawal symptoms were themselves a defining element of dependence, then different drugs would be associated with different kinds of dependence, but this is not a widely held view. Rather, it is believed that dependence can readily shift from one substance to another. Expectations of need for substance use In summary, the most complete account of addictive behaviors comes from a synthesis of physiology, pharmacology, psychology, and sociology - social learning. Dependence exists along a continuum of severity implying the need for different treatments and outcome goals. Substance-related harms in physical, psychological, and social spheres belong to a separate domain. Addiction has become a term without precise meaning, but is generally taken to include dependence, problem use, and any related harms. While social learning allows that anyone may become dependent on psychoactive substances and may also unlearn their dependence, it does not preclude the possibility that substance use may cause deficiencies of endogenous neurotransmitters, which are usually reversible, or permanent damage to receptor structure and connectivity. Pervin6 explores this very issue in a study of four poly drug users: subjects were asked to describe situations (1) where they wanted to use drugs, (2) after they had used drugs, (3) where they wanted to use drugs but could not, and (4) unrelated to drug use, and then to associate affects from a prepared list with the four situations they described. A factor analysis produced three factors accounting for 44% of the variance: the first factor Wish, was characterized as "being tense, helpless, jittery, lonely"; the second, After Drugs, was characterized as "lonely, empty, inhibited, angry"; and the third, Taking Drugs, included "confidence, relaxed, high, secure, strong, satisfied". The results also indicated that subjects discriminated between drugs suited to dealing with different affects. In two complementary reports, Johanson and Uhlenbuth7,8 compared changes in mood among normal volunteers in a choice experiment between placebo, diazepam, and amphetamine. Amphetamine 5 mg was chosen significantly more often than placebo, 81% of possible choices, with increased scores for vigor, friendliness, elation, arousal, positive mood, and decreased scores for confusion. In contrast, diazepam 5 and 10 mg were chosen significantly less often than placebo, 28 and 27% of choices, respectively, with decreased scores on vigor and arousal and increased scores on confusion and fatigue. The point to underline here is that normal subjects are likely to have different effects to patient groups and the reinforcing potential of different substances will therefore vary between such groups: within matched subjects the reinforcing properties of different substances will also vary in strength. At a clinical level, most doctors are wary of "addictive" drugs: for example, long-term methadone prescribing is intended to achieve pharmacological stability, at least partially block the effect of other opiates, and prevent withdrawal symptoms. Using a choice paradigm, subjects maintained on methadone 50 mg daily, identified to subjects as capsule A, had the option of taking capsule B which, in different trials, contained either methadone 50, 60, 70, or 100 mg, in place of Capsule A. Capsule B was chosen 50, 73, 87, and 97%, respectively, of occasions: at the highest dose, subjects identified an opiate effect and a liking for the drug but no high or withdrawal was reported. The clinical implications are quantified by McGlothlin and Anglin10 in a 7-year follow-up of patients attending high- vs. So, the dilemma is that prescriptions most liked by addicts, namely those that are more reinforcing, achieve good program retention and a degree of stability, but at the cost of slowing movement away from substance use and the associated subculture. The potency of psychoactive effect is not simply a function of dose or plasma level, but also depends upon receptor uptake characteristics.
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