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bullet外国人が日本で鍼灸を見学/勉強したい場合の応援
bullet鍼灸/東洋医学に関する和英(+独)の用語集を作成する
bullet可能であれば日本語の本を外国で出版してくれる出版社を見つける(翻訳作業)
bullet自作を通して養生を促し、(国の)医療費削減に貢献する (医療+金)

 ここも時々少し関連の事を書いている。

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    日本で(鍼灸を)見学を希望する外国人

日本の鍼灸師 - 力を貸して下さい!

外国人見学希望者を自分の治療院等で見学させて下さい

(中に暫く「弟子」になりたい人もいるようです)

 

チャンス 

以前外国人見学希望者を受け入れる事あったが、過去の経験に基づいて懸念される事もある:本当に勉強したいとそうでもない人がいて、態度が悪くて、そして日本で仮に一日何処か(偉い)先生で見学するだけで、後で自分の履歴書に「日本留学/○○先生の弟子」と出張する人がいると言われた事あります。

 

それはきっとそうですが、歴史を通して全ての治療者は何時か、何処かで誰かの世話で自分の「チャンス」を与えてもらいました。その中に歴史に残る偉大な先生もいたでしょうし、落第生もいたでしょう(後者の方が多かったに違いありません!)。 

私は自分のチャンスを貰いました。今はその恩返しするチャンスがあります。

出来るのなら勉強したいと希望する他の外国人にもそのチャンスを合えてる手伝いしたいです。

だが、私一人の力ではどうにもなりませんから、皆さんのご協力をお願い申し上げたい。

    私のHPには英語やドイツ語のページがあるからだと思いますが、時々外国の方から『既に中国の鍼を「知っている」か「 勉強 した」のですが、出来れば「日本の鍼」について 勉強したいと思います。どこで、どのように勉強 が出来るでしょうか。又は誰に聞けば見学が出来る場所が見つかるでしょうか。』という問い合わせが来ます。
残念ながら私自身は大変未熟ですし、決して「日本の代表」として「日本の鍼」を語れません。
誇り高き「職人気質」を海外(日本以外全世界です!)の方に披露して下さる先生方 - つまり外国の方を自分の治療院で見学させて下さる先生方を探しています。実際いつ外国人の見学希望者が現れるやその際の詳細な条件は全く予想がつきません。
ただ、ご協力してくださる先生方が事前に手を上げて下されば、必要な時どなたに声を掛ければよいかが分かる事は非常に助かります。
ご協力の程、宜しくお願いします。

    過去に長年の間全日本鍼灸学会や鍼灸師会、学校など何度も問い合わせて協力を求めました。そう言った少々喧しい活動は些か影響があったかもしれませんが、2009年6月の全日本鍼灸学会の総会において「これから外国人見学希望者を積極的受け入れる」事は正式採択されました。鍼灸学会のHPに現在ご協力してくださる先生方が掲示されています:    http://en.jsam.jp/contents/020000t6JBM3/
ありがとうございます。

その他に私は個人的助けを求めたからご協力する先生もいるし、そして私のHPを見て、志願して下さった先生もいます。(私独自のリストは現在約25人を含んでいる)

お蔭様で過去に何度外国人見学希望者に複数の見学出来る箇所を紹介することが出来ました。

もしご協力してくださる先生がいれば、上記のHP(鍼灸学会の会員でないと出来ない)に登録するか、私宛ご連絡くだされば、外国人見学希望者がいれば紹介出来ると思います。

Thomas' Acupuncture Clinic トーマス鍼灸院

240-0112
Kanagawa-Ken, Miura-Gun
Hayama-Machi, Horiuchi 815
Tel/Fax: +81 - 46-876-3077
Email: tom@einklang.com 

〒240-0112神奈川県三浦郡は山町堀内815

Tel/Fax: 046-876-3077

電子メールアドレス: tom@einklang.com

 

 

    日本は外国人にとって相変わらず一つの「ブラックボックす」です。日本以外の国から日本に於ける鍼・東洋医学などの事を調べようとすれば、日本語を読めない人に分かるものが僅かしかありません。それ故に問い合わせて来る外国人から何度も「日本国内誰がどこで何をしているかに関して我々(日本語を読めない人)が使える情報が殆どありませんから、僅かな情報でも助かります。お願いします。」言われました。

もし日本の先生方が自分のHP、或いはその一部を翻訳したいとお考えであれば、喜んでお手伝いします。それも鍼灸(師)の声が世界で聞こえるためです。

 

昔あれこれ色々と書き入れたページもあった。それが批判の対象にもなったが、敢えてその古い話へのリンクを張る:

外国人見学希望者を自分の治療院等で見学させて下さる先生方

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用語集に関して専用のページも造りました。→

    東洋医学の用語集

過去長年の翻訳仕事中時々東洋医学関連文章も以来される。殆どの場合日英訳になる。作業中で調べたり、メモした言葉を適当な表を作ってきました。

その翻訳作業に複数の辞書を使っているが、私は知っている限り現在東洋医学関連の日英辞典は小さな一冊しかない。そこで前記の複数の辞書から引いた言葉を使ったりして、ネットで検索を書けたりして、あるいは満足すべき用語見つからなかったら、独自の解釈を加えて下記のサンプル(本来表は横向きになっているが、ここでは画面から食み出るので見せるため「縦書き」にした)の物を作っている。

出来れば多数の先生方に協力していただければその用語集の規模や内容大幅増えると期待している。結局中英辞典を参考しても、日本の状況や特徴が上手く現れてこない。

 

是非ご協力下さい。日本の伝統技術を世界に伝えるために大事な作業と私は考えている。

この表は例です。本来縦横は逆ですが、こちらのページで上手く表示されないからこの形にした。

これでしたら、用語を漢字、かな、アルファベット、英語、アルファベット表記の中国語で検索できる。

Sample:

カテゴリ

tre

ref

the

用語

駆?血剤

ケツ陰

テイ鍼

へん針

按摩

医界之鉄椎

一気留滞説

日本語 (かな)

くおけつざい

けついん

ていしん

へんしん

あんま

いかいのてっつい

いっきりゅうたいせつ

日本語 (ローマ字)

ku oketsu zai

ketsuin

teishin

henshin

anma

ikai no tettsui

ikki ryutai setsu

英語 (第一選択)

drugs for overcoming blood stagnation

reverting yin

spoon needle

石鍼 stone needle

massage

Ikai no tettsui = Iron Hammer of the Medical World

Ikki Ryutai Setsu: Gonzan Goto's theory of disease developing from stagnation of Qi

英語 (別表現)

中国語 (ローマ字、アクセントなし)

qu yu xue ji

jue yin

chi zhen

bian shin

an mo

説明

blood stasis expelling drugs // qu yu = / hua yu = /zhu yu =

henseki = stone needle

book by Keijuro Wada

参考 ・ リンク

画像

議論

これもまた "LibreOffice" の "Calc" で造った。

* http://ja.libreoffice.org/

LibreOffice はフリーソフトで上記のURLから無料ダウンロード出来る。本来 "OpenOffice" であったが、Oracle と言う会社から買収されてから開発者の半分ほど反発し、LibreOffice の分岐を造った。Libre = Liberty = Freedom = 自由の意味。単なる「無料」ではない。マイクロソフトの「商品」を使うにはマイクロソフトの奴隷にならざるを得ない上、奴隷でいたければ定期的大金支払わなければならない→「バージョンアップ」等と名乗って。

私はは奴隷より自由でありたい。よって、「自由」を強調するソフトを使う。

この際お薦めしたい!

 

 

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    日本の本(資料)を翻訳

日本の鍼灸技術に関する資料を世界に見せるのは大変「難しい」ようです。 

既に代田先生の本を読みたい外国人から声を掛けられてきた。中国語の海賊版以外に「真面な」訳本が私は知っている限り存在しない。

幾つかの本もあるが、取り合えず「鍼灸真髄」と言う本を例の外国人に推薦し、ボランティアー活動として翻訳してあげるまで提案した。
翻訳許可を得るため出版社は「規定を守ってい、きちんとした契約書にサイン」する事を要求している。そのような守らなければならない納期を含む契約書をサインするとこちらの「商業(営業)妨害」になるし、「翻訳料」はお小遣いに過ぎないため、こちらの生活を脅かす条件です。

日本の鍼灸の素晴らしさを世界に見せる機会は不可解の「商業ベース」概念で妨げられる。こちらはただで作ってあげると提案したのに!

2015年三月の御墓参りの際、故代田先生の奥さんも多摩川のOBに代田先生の教え/考え方をもっと広めて欲しいと希望を表した。代田先生の本を翻訳されてしまえばその意志表現にも叶っていると私は何となく理解しているつもり。

残念です。

 

 

治療家の手の作り方-反応論・触診学試論」 -  [形井秀一]
出版社: 六然社 (2002/01)、ISBN-10: 4901609106

この本に関して以前オーストラリアから来た見学者が帰国後一所懸命宣伝してくれたため、出版社2件から「興味有り」との反応があった。

そのため本の所々から「サンプル」を取って英訳した事ある。ここに参考までのせる。

中国ではどちらかと言うと「理論」が優先的に考え、○○証だと決めたら例の「標準経穴」に治療する。患者がその場所に反応が有るか否かが余り興味がないようだ。そこで形井先生が纏めてくれた日本の触診の優れた技術を是非とも海外の方に知って欲しい!

私は翻訳者が単にある文章を他の言語の文章に翻訳する物だけではなく、どのような*** 文章 = 本 ***が翻訳する価値がある事を仕事柄上で見つける「専門家」である。残念ながら実際に翻訳される文献の選択はそのような「価値」と無関係で選ばれる。以前私の意見が雑誌で出版された:

The above book describes the highly sophisticated Japanese palpation skills acquired and required during good acupuncture therapy. Many Japanese practitioners rely in their treatment on the findings obtained through this kind of very sensitive touch, instead of the theory and pattern driven selection of the so-called "standard point locations". I believe, a translation of this book would be an invaluable asset to western oriental medical community in general! 

(The link points to an article I wrote about a translators function as a "bookfinder" (in analogy to pathfinder).

             Translator as "Bookfinder" 

Sample -> below

 

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須原先生が書いた本の表紙:出直せ

 

須原先生との出会いが私の人生に大きな影響を及ぼしたため、最近須原先生の本:

「出なおせ・見直せ」

を翻訳する許可を得て、これから翻訳の作業に入る。

 

出来たら電子書籍として公開する予定。2013年12月・・・少しずつ翻訳し始めた・・・

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Contents and sample text:

Dr. Katai's book
(took the liberty of omitting the boxes on pages III andV)

How to develop the “hand” of a therapist

Contents
Introduction
Outline
1. What is a reaction?
1) From the patient's point of view
2) From the therapist's point of view
2
Types of reactions
1) Tension of muscles
2) Indurations
3) "Tension" and "distention" (swelling)
4) Protuberances (bulging)
5) Stony-hard and leathery
6) Surface roughness and jelly-like softness
7) Fullness
8) Tenderness
9) Edema
10) Coldness
11) Feverish sensation
12) Depression (indentation)
13) Flaccidity (laxness), atrophy
14) Dryness, surface roughness
15) Dampness, moisture
16) Body hair
17) Other
3. Regarding acupoints
1) What are acupoints? Acupoint locations
2) General condition of acupoints
3) Size of acupoints
4) Spatial extent of the stimulation
5) How far can you trust your own tactile sensation?
4. Before approaching reactions
1) Stiffness and climacterium
2) Stiffness too is one of your body responses
* (1) "Stiffness" due to climacteric age
* (2) "Stiffness" as a reaction to disease
3) Scope of the recognition of stiffness
5. To change reactions
1) Modification of reactions
2) Location of reactions
3) How do you modify reactions?
* (1) Modify reactions locally
* (2) Modify reactions via the local surroundings
* (3) Modify from a distance
4) Modifying locally and modifying other than locally
5) Whole body changes and local changes
6) Meaning of stimulation to upper/lower extremities
6. Stimulation induced changes in the body
1) What do stimulations trigger in the body?
* (1) Manifestation of changes at the stimulation site
- 1 – Improvement of blood flow
- 2 – Reduction of stiffness, tension and swelling 
- 3 – Raising the pain threshold
2) What happens at other sites or in the whole body?
* (1) Anatomic, physiologic considerations
* (2) Considerations regarding meridians, acupoints
7. Acupuncturists (therapists) and modern society
1) Acupuncturists (therapists) and modern society
2) Acupuncturists and patients (social role of acupuncturists)
8. Palpation – skill improvement techniques
1] Basics of palpation
1) Keep your hands clean
2) Warm your hands
3) Positional relationship between therapist and patient
4) Posture of the therapist and positioning of the hands
5) Palpation with the left hand
6) The order of palpation
7) Palpation targets
8) Palpation without causing pain
2] Actual practice of skill improvement techniques
1) Preparation and mental attitude
2) Improve the sense of touch
Blinding
3) Training of hands and fingers
(1) Origami practice
(2) Walnut practice
(3) Chopstick practice with the pressing hand
4) Develop tactile sensitivity of the finger tips
(1) Coin practice
(2) Moxa practice
(3) Needle practice
(4) Vein practice
(5) Artery practice
5) Palpation of muscles and bones
6) Searching for depressions in the skin (areas of deficiency in the skin)
7) Draw a body map
8) Set up your own standard
9) Obtain guidance from superior teachers
10) For people wishing to warm their hands even more successfully
11) From training to actual practice
12) Steps on the way of improvement
(1) Step 1: Practice to touch the other persons body without causing discomfort 
(2) Step 2: Practice accurate palpation based on western medical concepts of anatomy and organ location
(3) Step 3: Comprehend oriental medical physiology and anatomy with your hands (obtain information from the skin down to the muscles)
(4) Step 4: Comprehend the general concept of "reactions"
(5) Step 5: Understand the correlation between palpation and treatment induced reactions and changes
(6) Step 6: Predict the precise points to required and the results of any changes in order to modify the reactions
13) Practice duration for the variations stages
14) Summary

9. Correlation between mind and body
- Can treatment of the body change the mind?
1) Mind and body
2) Approach to the internal milieu (mind and body)
3) Oriental medical concepts of mind and body
4) Patterns of findings appearing on the body
5) Does physical treatment change the mind?
6) Changing the body changes the mind
7) Where lays the foundation of the mind?


Detailed explanations
1. Before palpating
1) Patient clothing, bed-making
2) Flow of the palpation
3) Palpation with the patient in supine position
(1) Procedure of palpation in supine position 
(2) Things that have to be taken care of during palpation in supine position
(3) Positions of therapist and patient
4) Palpation with the patient in prone position
(1) Procedure of palpation in prone position
(2) Things that have to be taken care of during palpation in prone position
5) Location of the acupoints and meridians on the upper and lower extremities in prone and supine position
6) Good relationship between patient and therapist
(1) Informed consent
(2) What characterizes the entity patient?
(3) What is a therapist?
(4) What can the therapist do for the patient?
7) Information obtained through other means than palpation

2. Head
1) Palpation of the head
2) Stress and reactions of the head
3) Condition of the skin and responses at representative acupoints
* Important points during palpation of the head

3. Neck and shoulders
1) Palpation of the neck
2) Regarding the causes for reactions in the cervical region
3) Palpation of the shoulder region with the patient in a sitting position
* Important points during palpation of neck and shoulder

4. Face
1) Palpation of the face
2) Reactions in the region of the face
* Important points during palpation of the face

5. Abdomen
1) Palpation of the abdomen
2) Different forms of palpations depending on the school
3) Palpation of the five organs
4) Performance of abdominal palpation
(1) Concrete procedures of abdominal palpation
(2) Subjects of abdominal palpation
5) What can be learnt through abdominal palpation?
(1) Health level
(2) Mental status
(3) Problems of abdominal internal organs
(4) Significance of abdominal palpation
6) Specifics of abdominal palpation (abdominal reactions and their treatment)
(1) Fullness in the chest and hypochondrium
(2) Stuffiness and rigidity below the heart
(3) Abdominal skin (internal) tension
(4) Abdominal Blood stagnation
(5) Lower abdominal cramps
(6) Numbness below the umbilicus
(7) Swelling and distention above the pubic bone
(8) Gynecologic reactions manifesting above the pubic bone
* Important points during palpation of the abdomen

6. Back, lumbar and gluteal regions
1) Palpation of the back, lumbar and gluteal regions
(1) Meridians and nerves
(2) Reactions manifesting in the interscapular region
(3) Spatial relationship of the bones of the back as reference for the palpation
(4) Sensation upon palpating the bladder meridian on the back
2) Reactions in the region of the upper back (interscapular area)
3) Reactions in the region of the lumbar region
4) Reactions in the lumbar and gluteal regions
(1) Lumbar region
(2) Gluteal region
5) Identifying reactions on the back and in the lumbar region
(1) Intensity of the stimulation of the treatment areas and underlying concepts
(2) There is a scope for the effects of acupoints
(3) Differentiation between yin and yang meridians
(4) Causing changes on the trunk via the upper/lower extremities
(5) Using local acupoints
6) Be careful not to cause pneumothorax
7) Concrete examples of obtaining reactions from the back and lumbar regions
8) Treatment examples of reactions from the back and lumbar regions
* Important points regarding shoulders and back, lumbar and gluteal regions

7. Upper extremities
1) Influence of upper and lower extremities on the trunk
2) Important points regarding examination and treatment of the upper extremities
(1) Vicinity of HT3
(2) Wrists
(3) Central forearm around PC4
(4) Brachioradialis muscle region
(5) Vicinity of backside LI10
(6) SI3
3) Needling depth
4) Correlation between upper extremities and the trunk
* Important points regarding to upper extremities and trunk

8. Lower extremities
1) Palpation of the lower extremities
2) Reactions of the lower extremities
(1) Edema
Edema of the entire legs
Edema of urinary and genital organs
Edema on the medial side of the knee
Edema on the medial side of the ankle
Edema on the posteromedial side of the calves
Edema of the feet
(2) Coldness
(3) Swelling, sense of warmth
3) Correlation between the lower extremities and the trunk

9. Changes on the trunk caused by needling of upper/lower extremities
1) Correlation between upper/lower extremities and the abdomen
(1) Stuffiness and rigidity below the heart
(2) Fullness in the chest and hypochondrium
(3) Abdominal skin (internal) tension
(4) Abdominal Blood stagnation
(5) Lower abdominal cramps
(6) Numbness below the umbilicus
(7) Reactions above the pubic bone
1 Gynecological conditions
2 Urological conditions
2) How does needling of the upper and lower extremities affect the trunk?
Essay 1
Effectiveness of needling the upper and lower extremities for the treatment of so-called whip-lash injury
Essay 2
A case of low back pain for which KI9 was effective 
Index
Epilog

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Katai
 … Introduction (VI, left side)

Well now, what does "reaction" refer to?
Here I would like to use the term "reaction" as an expression for all findings obtainable through palpation from the body surface. In other words, "reaction" could refer to hardness of softness of the body surface, coldness, roughness or a sense of moisture – literally all the information that can be ascertained through palpation.
At the beginning I would like to describe the overall procedure.
First, I would like the reader to get acquainted with the basic concepts pertaining to the nature of "What a reaction is". Once this is understood, possible methods of modifying these reactions would be required next. This stage then becomes the treatment. Second is the clarification of the concept of "reaction transformation techniques" used to transform the information obtained through the five senses from the body surface. Yet, here it is not sufficient to haphazardly play around in order to modify those reactions. The question "what condition should be reached to constitute a change?" is of great importance. In other words, this means evaluating the therapeutic results and identifying of how long the therapy should be continued, thus determining the "endpoint of the treatment". Here it becomes important to clarify the stimulation dose.

It should be noted, though, that the manifestation of reactions differs among various body regions.
For example, you get different feelings when touching the head, palpating the abdomen or touching the legs. Headache or stiff shoulders, a generalized feeling of weariness, tingling of the legs etc. all produce different subjective symptoms for the patients depending on the region involved.

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1. What is a reaction?
2) From the therapists point of view -- page 3 lower half

Next I would like to summarize the topic from the therapists viewpoint.
First, considering of how to comprehend "stiffness", one has to look at differences based on its depth and I think, it is possible to classify this reaction into the following four types:
(1) The skin is tense;
(2) there is tension (swelling) between skin and muscles (within the connective tissue);
(3) the muscles themselves are tense; and
(4) induration of layers deeper than muscles (this becomes evident during palpation of the abdomen).

A beginner may be led to think, "this is muscle stiffness". Yet, muscle tone represents only one aspect of this "stiffness". Thus this classification is based on the assumption, that besides the muscle tissue, the skin, connective tissue etc. too are prone to the development of stiffness. It goes without saying, that increased tension of connective tissues and muscles are often simultaneously associated with heightened tension of tissues still closer to the body surface. And it is also needless to say that during treatment the techniques applied vary depending on the respective depths. 
Upon manifestation of this reaction it is important, that the practitioner assesses (1) the site, (2) the approximate depth and characteristics of the stiffness, without relying on the patient reporting stiffness of tension. 
As described above, the therapist's capability of recognizing whether the patient experiences that the shoulders feel somehow heavy, s/he is weary or irritated, somehow lethargic and lacking motivation etc. as well as other indefinite "sensations" of the patient will change the therapeutic significance of these symptoms.

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9. Correlation between mind and body
3) Oriental medical concepts of mind and body; page 83, upper half

I think the oriental way of looking at things is very interesting. For example, when "anger", "fear" or "joy", or one of the other five emotions become a problem in a oriental medical sense, they definitely constitute an etiologic cause, but at the same time each of those emotions are something that everybody has to have. Essentially, during happy moments people are supposed to experience "joy", while they may experience "anger" during unpleasant times and sadness, grief and the other emotions are also fundamental. However, while it would be undesirable, if they were manifestations negatively affecting people's life, being capable of having these emotions is vital for all people. Therefore, a condition marked by the absolute absence of "anxiety" or "fear" is essentially impossible and the lack of such emotions in itself would be a problem. 
The word awe expresses "to be in fear". This happens for example when people face the "might of nature", that exceeds the human capabilities of comprehension. Thus, the realization that humans are compared with the magnitude and power of nature such a feeble and insignificant presence, inspires in people a prostrating feeling of "awe". This is different from being afraid to go to the bathroom. Naturally, there are also conditions like a pathologic "fear" of appearing before people.

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4) Patterns of findings appearing on the body; page 84, upper half
Here I would like to describe some common patterns discernable among the information obtained from reactions on the patient's body surface. 
First, there is a darkening of the skin of the lower back or occasionally also on the abdomen. Moreover, in severe cases the muscles of the lower back may even appear to be sunken. Somehow I am under the impression, that this kind of depression is more frequent on the right side.
There are also depressions and soft spots on the shoulders and in the interscapular region (the area around thoracic vertebrae 2 and 3, or 4 and 5). Here too, they seem to appear more frequently on the right side.
The region from the occiput to the vertex becomes tense and stiff. By comparison the trapezius muscle on the shoulders is often rather flaccid and lacks power. However, an increased tone of the levator scapulae muscle may also be observed. 
Also, many people may present with a tendency towards constipation or diarrhea. During palpation the abdomen may be found to lack tension and strength. Probably this is indicative of the intestines lacking sufficient tone. 
Many people also complain of abdominal distention and frequent passing of gas, even though they may not necessarily be constipated. This condition is frequently combined with coldness of the toes. Yet, even if the toes are not cold, this type is associated with coldness from the knees up to the thighs.

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6) Changing the body changes the mind; page 85, lower half

In patients with the above described tendencies you get in general the feeling, that the low back is in a state of deficiency and lacks strength. This deficiency is more marked than in the usual condition appears and its manifestation is extreme. It feels as if the low back is hollowed out. If such patients were to complain of low back pain, they may report suffering from pain on either the sunken or the other side.
When physical problems are the main cause for the low back pain, many patients report having the pain on the side of the increased tension. Naturally, if the low back pain continues over an extended period of time, the particular affected area will loose strength and fall into a state of deficiency. When the condition has become chronic, the involved region will often loose strength, making recovery even more difficult. Therapeutically attempts must be made to regain strength of the affected area. Although people with mental problems do not necessarily complain of low back pain, even in the absence of such complaints there may be depressed areas in the lumbar region. Some people may report a feeling of discomfort of the back rather than in the lumbar region. Again, some patients visiting the clinic complain about distressing feelings of the back being congested.

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5. Abdomen
2) Different forms of palpations depending on the school; page 123

There are various schools of abdominal palpation (Note 5-1). In Japan the importance of "examining the abdomen" has been particularly emphasized during the Edo period. Regarding the development it seems to have been not been considered that important in its place of origin China.
The foundations for the currently practiced abdominal examination are found in texts like the "Nan Jing" (Classic of Difficult Issues), or the "Shindo Hiketsu Shu" of the Mubun style(1), the "Fukusho Kiran(2)" by Bunrei Inaba and the "Fukusho Kiran Yoku(3)" by the deciple Shukuko Wakuda of the latter and are characterized by different viewpoints regarding abdominal examination. 
The Kampo (decoction) treatment school called Koho-ha represents the mainstream and places extreme importance on abdominal examination. Identification of particular abdominal patterns relates directly to the prescription of a certain Kampo medicines, so that the name of the pattern becomes also the name of the prescription. For example, in case of "fullness in the chest and hypochondrium" (xiong xie ni man), (where the character "ku" = distress refers to the patients subjective discomfort, while "man" = fullness refers to the distention the practitioner senses during the palpation or else excessive tension) the Shosaikoto (Minor bupleurum decoction = Xiao-Chai-Tu-Tang) or Daisaikoto (Major bupleurum decoction = Da-Chai-Tu-Tang) pattern will also determine the prescription (Figure 5-2).
On the other hand, in current Japanese acupuncture, similar to the procedures adopted according to the Gosei-ha school, yin-yang and the five phases are emphasized, I believe that everybody inherited the tradition of the Gosei-ha school and studied acupuncture accordingly. Naturally, the Gosei-ha school too has a form of abdominal examination, but it differs from the Koho-ha school. The palpation of the five viscera is based on a concept, where five regions of the abdomen are assigned to the five phases and if there are any problems in these particular regions of the abdomen, they determine what phase (viscera and bowels) is disturbed and thus needs treatment (Figure 5-4).
Moreover, there is also the Mubun style of Isai Misono (using a thick, tapered needle inserted by tapping with a mallet) characterized by the unique abdominal examination method shown in Figure 5-3, that is completely different from the palpation of the five viscera (Figure 5-3, Note 5-2).
Since abdominal examinations vary among the different schools some people may feel, that abdominal examination itself is meaningless, but it doubtlessly provides a lot of important information in actual clinical practice, so that examination for abdominal reactions is an indispensible part of the clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion. However, currently abdominal examination tends to be neglected not only in western, but also in oriental medicine and should be seriously reconsidered (Note 5-3). 

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